why do we forget

  • Created by: BKW
  • Created on: 20-05-19 14:11
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  • Why do we forget?
    • incidental forgetting
      • interference
        • proactive - previously learned info interferes with new mems
        • retroactive - new info interferes with old mems
      • retrieval failiure - memories are present but cant be accessed
      • context dependency - changes in environment between encoding and retrieval will effect recall
    • encoding failiures
      • Subsequent memory effect - things can be subsequently remembered or forgot
        • Paller et al 1988 activity at the time of a study can determine if it will be later remembered or forgot
        • many studies show reduced activity during encoding for items that will be forgot
        • Kim 2011 meta analysis found these areas showed subsequent forgetting effects
          • Temporoparietal junction, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, ventromedial pfc
    • Directed forgetting
      • Item method
        • interfere with encoding process
          • were more likely to retrieve items were told to remember than forget
            • Anderson and Hanslmayr 2014
              • fond this fr both pictures and words in both recall and recognition tasks
            • perhaps memory was never created in first place
          • selective rehearsal hyp
            • people restrict processing of 'forget' items - there is more effort in remembering than forgetting
          • encoding suppression hyp
            • forgetting is an active process, more effort in forgetting than remembering
            • Fawcett and Taylor 2008
              • RTs to secondary task is slower after forget than remember items
      • List method
        • interfere with retrieval
          • Anderson and Hanslymayr 2014
            • PPS given 2 lists - at the end of 1 told to forge it but did in fact have to recall both lists
              • pps remember more from remember list than forget
                • this waonly found in recall not recognition meaning it must be retrieval that's impaired
    • Motivated forgetting
      • Anderson ey al 2004 - think-no think paradigm
        • phase 1 - training - pps learn series of unrelated words eg pen-cherry, table-crane
          • phase 2 - experimental session - some pairs are tagged as think, no thik or not at all
            • phase 3 - test - pps are asked to try and remember what word goes with….
        • found recall was worse for no think pairs but not for think pairs
          • forgetting ^ with more suppression attempts
          • reduced activity especially in bilateral anterior hippocampi during supression
        • In agreement with known role of hippocampus in memory - supressed activity of hippocampus may explain forgetting
    • Stress
      • Psychogenic amnesia = emotional and stressful events can cause amnesia effecting autobiographical mem
        • can last houurs/days and then mem is recovered - no evident neurological cause of this
    • Bias
      • were more likely to remember good mems
        • Bernten 1996 - 49% pleasant 19% unpleasant
          • Sidikes and green 2000 - we tend to remember more positive than negative feedback
            • the inconsistency negativity neglect model
              • feedback that is inconsistent with self image and concept is threatening so ignoring it ensures stable self concept
      • Own race bias


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