Religious Studies - Philosophy Key Terms

  • Created by: justzoe
  • Created on: 11-06-18 09:47
conversion
A process of religious change that alters one’s view of the world. It can be a conversion from no religion to a faith; from one faith to another faith, or from faith (believing) to faith (trusting).
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empiricism
The philosophical theory that all knowledge is derived from experience. Experience always means sensory experience, i.e. experience that depends on one or more of the five senses.
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natural evil
causes of suffering within the natural world including disaster, disease, decay and death.
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moral evil
intentional human action (commission) or inaction (omission) that results in suffering, e.g. murder or arguably, failure to have children vaccinated.
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intellectual faith
A faith that is based on intellectual argument and reasoning.
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mystical experience
A direct and intimate experience of God.
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philosophy
Academic subject devoted to the study of the pursuit of wisdom, knowledge and truth.
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religious experience
1) An experience of something spiritual. 2) An experience in which the presence of the numinous is felt. 3) Any experience that is given a religious interpretation.
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science
A branch of knowledge or study that is characterised by obtaining its evidence through provable and repeatable experimentation and observation.
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logical problem of evil
Mackie's view that the three statements: God is all powerful, God is all loving, and there is evil in the world, are logically inconsistent and cannot all be true. Since evil exists, at least one of the other two must be false.
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augustinian tradition
Theodicies in this tradition follow the lead of St. Augustine in identifying free will – or God’s deliberate decision to give up control of the universe and some of the beings within it – as the source of all evil.
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analogical view of religious language
The view, associated with St Thomas Aquinas, that descriptive terms when applied to God mean neither the same, nor something completely different than when they are applied to humanity. For example, human love may be seen to be a limited and imperfec
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eschatological verification
A phrase coined by Hick for the idea that some statements will be proved true after death, e.g. there is a life after death.
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free will defence
The view that human free will, and the context in which it can be meaningfully used, explain and justify the existence of evil in a world created by God.
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hick's vale of soul making theodicy
A modern presentation of the Irenaean theodicy. Argues that natural and moral evil are essential to ‘soul making’ so they have a good purpose and an all-loving God is therefore justified in making a world such which allows for evil.
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Irenaean theodicy
Theodicies in this tradition follow the lead of the second century Bishop now Saint Irenaeus. The key theme of the theodicy is that humanity develops through encountering evil, so evil has a good purpose.
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ontological argument
The arguments for the existence of God based on the idea that the very fact that we have a concept of God must mean that he exists.
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predicate
That part of a statement that makes assertion about a subject – telling you what something is, does or has. The criticism is that the ontological argument incorrectly uses ‘existence’ as a property or quality that God possesses.
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problem of evil
Two forms of the problem are generally recognised: the logical problem of evil based on the inconsistent triad; and the evidential problem of evil based on the existence of pointless suffering which, it is argued, makes it probable that God does not
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reincarnation
The transfer of a soul or spirit from one body at death to a new one at birth.
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religion
An organised faith system. The term may relate to both a person’s identity with, or actual practice.
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resurrection
① The belief that, after death, an individual will be brought back to life (raised again) by an external power often assumed to be God. ② Jesus rising from the dead after dying on the cross. One of the key beliefs in Christianity
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theodicy
A defence of the justice of God in the light of evil.
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Card 2

Front

The philosophical theory that all knowledge is derived from experience. Experience always means sensory experience, i.e. experience that depends on one or more of the five senses.

Back

empiricism

Card 3

Front

causes of suffering within the natural world including disaster, disease, decay and death.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

intentional human action (commission) or inaction (omission) that results in suffering, e.g. murder or arguably, failure to have children vaccinated.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A faith that is based on intellectual argument and reasoning.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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