Environmental Ethics Mindmap

This is a mindmap I made covering all asects of Environmental Ethics

Apologies for any typing mistakes as I was typing on an iPad

I hope it helps you!

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  • Created by: Alice
  • Created on: 13-05-13 15:49
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consensus that climate change is the greatest
Is protection of the environment an issue only
problem faced by world
for the rich?
11 of the hottest years ever recorded have past 100 years average global surface temp has
Is protection of the environment only for the
taken place since 1995 risen 0.74c Issues arising
good and benefit of humankind?
rising temperatures brought about changes in
How far should humans be forced to be
weather patterns
environmentally responsible?
due to human activity e.g. burning of fossil fuels
considers ethical relationship between people
such as coal and oil according to intergovernmental panel on climate and the natural world
change (IPCC) this is caused by rising levels of
if continued increase in temperatures, sea co2 in the atmosphere
EE has grown in importance because to ignore
levels, heat waves, droughts and cyclones
it is to decide in favour of the status quo - no
longer an option
may have severe implications for the most
there is no agreed ethics for environmental
issues and no international environmental code
recently german scientists have published a
new computer model of a natural cooling cycle
some have opinion that constant change is a
lasting 10 years but this doesn't disapprove Climate change Threats to the environemnt
fact of this planet and the planet will readjust
climate change What is environmental ethics?
differences among scientists as to exact cause
some believe that use of fossil fuels would not
major contributor is deforestation due to spread and nature of environmental problems so there
have an impact if it were not for deforestation,
of civilisation resulting in rising greenhouse are differneces in approaches
logging without reforestation and
some believe traditional of ethical thought are
good guides for EE but others deem these too
many non renewable, and much of the
environmental damage disproportionally affects way of life and increasing population are
the poorest people of the world who live in the exhausting natural resources
most affected areas there are also views of christians and other
religious believers who have a particular
responsibility for the world
whether environment should be protected
bible teaching not always clear
whether humans should be considered first
many issues idea that humans have dominion over the
whether we should conserve species
natural world is seen by many as
whether we should let species go extinct
all humans considered to have a moral standing
we are considered to have moral standing by
virtue of being human moral agents, having
points out that the teachings of Aristotle
personhood and being self conscious
influenced by aquinas who continued to view no intrinsic value in the world
humans as the only morally important beings
like us animals can have sentience so should
we extend moral standing to them?
used elsewhere in the context of conquering the
however we still use animals for sport, farm in the past our attitude and treatment of animals the command 'to subdue' the earth is a
them (intensively) keep them in zoos, was different - extinction was a result of our translation of the hebrew word 'kabash'
concerned with bringing order and well being
experiment on them deliberate hunting/killing
rather than destruction
Andrew Linzey it is a mark of our change in attitudes towards
used in a relationship connection
1st professor of ethics, theology and animal animals that there is now a centre in oxford for
welfare at oxford animal ethics
not being a despotic tyrannical ruler but like the
kings of israel called to reign with due regard for
Linzey considers gods love of animals to extend the word 'dominion' is a translation of the
so advocates vegetarianism and simple living in the first creation story humanity is given a have dominion the well being of their subjects and the and over
to animals hebrew word 'radah'
particular responsibility for the created world which they ruled
Linzey and this hinges on 2 words
adam is formed of the dust of the earth and then people are part of the earth but with a particular
commanded to till and care for the soil responsibility for it
Animal Rights however celia deane drummond criticised this
like singer, Lynn white considered these view as it doesnt account for environmental
commands to be at the root of many of our destruction in times and places unaffected by
environmental problems and he published a the judaeo christian tradition
Linzey's view is endorsed by Peter Singer very influential article to this effect in the journal
SCIENCE 1967 also it is based on a mistaken interpretation of
he used a set of criteria for moral status based the text
on sentience
foundation of christian approach to the
god seems to value the natural world
Dominion environment is seen by many believers as the
this means that moral worth includes humans if 'god saw that it was good'
not we are guilty of speciesism genesis 1:10a
our treatment of all humans and animals should the blessing 'be fruitful and multiply' is given to
be equal all creation
Peter Singer genesis 1: 22a
singer is a preference utilitarian so believes
animals should receive equal preference creation is called to praise and glorify god
(e.g. pslam 148:3-10; isaiah 55:12, micah 6:1-2)
argues principle of equality that is applied to
humans of different races should be applicable
to animals god is shown as having continuing concern
about his creation
also advocates vegetarianism
singer has also been called the philosopher of
the animal liberation movement if god values creation and creation in return can
opposes animal experimentatiom respond to god then it seems that the bible says
that creation has intrinsic value
On the other hand it can be argued that animals
are not moral agents and so we do not have the however the creation story, upon which so much we are made in god's image
same moral obligation to give them moral of this understanding is based is open to 'so god created humankind in his image, in the
standing as we do to humans. interpretation image of god he created them; male and female
he created them
It may seem that a theory of this kind would However, an alternative approach can be found (genesis 1:27)
allow the exploitation of the natural world; if only in Kant's ethical theory, which is generally seen
rational nature counts as an end in itself, then as anthropocentric, based on the idea that
everything else may be used as a means to an rational nature alone has absolute and
we are given dominion over all creatures
end. conditional value, Protection and preservation of the environment
Animals should not be worn out and
this contrasts with the view that god has a st francis of Assisi understood that god
overworked, nor should they be cast aside once However. Kant denies that domestic animals special concern for humanity communicates to us through the natural world -
they are too old. are to be treated only as tools and insists that
there arc moral limits on how we should use through birds animals and trees and that it is a
them. sin to destroy them
Kant thinks it is all right to kill animals for food,
but killing for sport he sees as morally wrong. or are humans, being made in the image of god
this supports singers view of anthropomorphism his attitude towards the environment that the
also supposed to delight in the intrinsic value of
and anthropocentrism in the biblical texts natural world is inherently good and it is a sign so its purpose is to inspire our respect and love
This seems at odds with Kant's statements dial the natural world
Christianity of gods goodness
we have duties only towards rational beings, but
he explains that treating animals or the natural
world badly makes us into cruel and callous however he furthered this s he believed that all
all are part of the same creation with the same
people who will then treat other people badly. creatures had the ability and the duty to worship
intrinsic value
Kant also thinks that we have moral duties
People who torment animals are Kant
regarding the natural world
likely to do the same to humans, according to according to singer this is the root cause of our
and must not destroy it.
Kant. environmental problems and it is true that the
command 'to subdue' the earth (genesis) needs
Dominion may be understood to as considering alteration
So cruelty towards animals would not be that the natural world can be treated however
condemned in its own right, but because of its we whish nd be tamed for our use
consequences for humans it should be when the second creation account (Genesis 2)
considered intrinsically wrong. is observed we are told man is put in eden to
Stewardship protect and preserve it
According to Kant, a person cannot have good
will unless he or she shows concern for the we are to care/conserve creation because it
welfare of non-rational beings and values the Criticism of animal rights belongs to god humans are merely caretakers
natural world for its own sake. humans may be the peak of creation but only of his property
because we have the role of stewardship
He considers that wild animals have no greater Roger Scruton in Animal Rights and Wrongs humans are co creators with god and need to Creation is made by God and is good so must
standing than wild plants, which we may respect (1996) used an argument based on Kant's use/transform the natural world with care be preserved because it has intrinsic value Used of an approach to the environment that
because they are beautiful or interesting or a approach which restricts animal rights to places human interests above those of any Anthropocentric
valuable a valuable part of the eco system animals which are kept by humans, but says The fall (genesis 3) is seen by some as the Isaiah 14:4-5 other species Gaia hypothesis A theory of James lovelock
that we do not have a duty of care to wild reason for our environmental problems because "The earth lies polluted under its inhabitants, for
would allow fox hunting but not factory farming animals. from this point of view we became poor they have transgressed laws, violated the Used of an approach to the environment that
Used of an approach to the environment that
stewards of creation statutes, broken the everlasting covenant" Geocentric considers the geological nature and diversity of
considers the biological nature and diversity of Biocentric
the earth to be of supreme importance the earth to be most important
Singer would counteract this, saying that many
humans (infants and the severely mentally Christians teach that we need to use our
for christians the earth must be protected and make sure western life doesn't impinge unfairly
disabled) are not moral agents and still have knowledge to rectify this and re-establish the Used of an approach to the environment that
mistakes used as learning tools rectified where on the lifestyles of poorer nations and world as The variety of living things on earth Biodiversity
moral rights. bond between god and humanity/god and the Holistic considers a range of factors, including the
possible a whole
natural world importance of balance within the ecosystem
The ethics of the use, allocation, protection and
the arguments against animal rights are based Conservation ethics
singers preference utilitarianism sidesteps this exploitation of the natural world
on the thesis that animals have no rights christaisn belief protection of environment and The idea that somethings value lies in its
by not claiming animals should have rights but SInger KEY WORDS Instrumental value
because rights can only exist between people avoidance of exploitation for personal gain will usefulness for others
by claiming that we should give consideration to An approach to environmental ethics that sees
who are moral agents and can make moral bring about peace
animal welfare all life forms as of value and human life as just
claims on each other Deep ecology
one part of the biosphere. It rejects Intrinsic value The concept that somethings value lies in itself
Christian ethics is rooted in the relationship with
love of god/one's neighbour fundamental to anthropocentrism
utilitarianism is consequentialist so what may god which depends on how an individula uses
christian ethics & apply to environment Senteience The ability to feel pleasure and pain
seem to be the consequence in the short-term however The effect of human sin creation & contributes to the kingdom of god
may differ in the long term The judaeo christian idea that humans have a
special place in the natural world and have Dominion The concept that the earth is cared for to make
god created the world and it is good Shallow ecology
responsibility for it conditions better for humans
does not see this as the most preferable action
because it would result in only the most efficient the world has intrinsic value
producers remaining in the market A word formed by contracting the phrase A way of interpreting the use of dominion, which
states that if we follow singer and become Stewardship
ecological philosophy.it refers to philosophers sees humans as caretakers if the natural world
vegetarians the meat industry would collapse Ecosophy
humans are stewards of the world which have an eccentric or biocentric
they will charge the least for their product and 'why am i only a demi vegetarian?' (essays on perspective such as deep ecology
RM. Hare
are the least ethical in their treatment of animals bio ethics 1993)
christian environmental ethics our bad treatment f the world harms our
relationship with god, each other and the natural
therefore Hare suggests being a Demi- world
vegetarian eating vegetables & a small amount
of meat from ethical farmers
using creation well and respecting it restores
this relationship
singer argues that because plants are non - should moral standing be extended to all living
sentient, there is a problem in trying to things including the plants and tress that are so
The religious approaches to environmental christians need to reaffirm the importance of EE
determine their interests in staying alive essential for our survival?
Singer would not agree, admitting that although there are some christians particularly USA
the argument for the preservation of the influential right wing fundamentalists who follow
environment may be strong, it is difficult to singers interpretation of biblical teaching
argue for its intrinsic value
they believe that humans have dominion and
practical ethics that the genesis creation story teaches man as
unspoilt parts of the world that acquire 'scarcity superior to nature & can use resources
singer advocated the preservation of 'world
value' as they diminish over time unchecked
heritage sites'
it should be left to future generations to decide those who believe in the end-time feel that destruction of the earth is to be
their preservation ensures their survival for concern for the earth and the nat world is welcomed/encouraged as it is a sign of the as in the book of revelation 6:12-14
whether they prefer unspoilt countryside/ urban
future generations to enjoy Rapture and end time theology irrelevant because they have no future apocalypse - second coming of christ
landscape singer proposes an alternative
very specialist eco system with vegetation that john hagee senior pastor of the cornerstone 'All over the earth graves will explode a the
has taken years to evolve church, san antonio texas says that the occupants soar into the heavens'
e.g. tropical rainforest environmental and social crises of today are
portents of the rapture when born-again non-believers left behind will hav 7 years of once the battle is won christ will send the non-
clearing the rainforest to develop farmland is
once destroyed the forest cannot be replaced christians living/dead will be taken up into suffering culminating in the rise of the antichrist believers to hell and re-green the earth where
often pointless owing to the soil conditions
heaven and battle of armageddon he will reign in peace with his followers
they are a means to an end conservation/light green/ shallow ecology takes
the view that the only value in animals and the poignancy of theis theory is that it is held by why sign the kyoto agreement when you will be
plants is their extrinsic, instrumental value for many high-power americans rescied by rapture?
purely concerned with humanity humans
Works towards integrating with the natural world
conservation is important for our welfare and particularly because rebirth may be as an
Beliefs animal
that of future generations
e.g. a person chooses to avoid pollution & to Humanity is the main focus of the religion Buddhism does not view humanity as stewards
conservation ethics looks at the worth of the because it is from this stage that enlightenment but as having a responsibility towards the less
reduce, reuse and recycle because these
environment in terms of its utility/usefulness for should moral standing be extended to the whole is possible sentient beings
actions seem beneficial to humans in one way
humans earth/ teh entire natural world?
or another
Ahimsa is central to buddhist teaching and the
Rio - 1992 requirement to avoid harm to all living beings
3 agreements reached impacts on attitudes towards exploitation of
this is the ethic which formed the underlying
natural habitats
arguments for
Kyoto summit - 1997
Consumption of resources must be monitored
and carried out responsibility because of
anthropocentric restricts independent moral status to humans increasing global population
conservation ethics
biodiversity should be preserved as particular Plants are not necessarily seen as sentient life
species plants/animals provide us with forms but the conservation of forests is seen as
medicines/ food/ raw materials important for other life and as places if
so shallow ecology will accept that
environmental damage can continue if humans Conservation movements within buddhism
benefit from it which seek to promote sustainable development
and prevent damage to eco systems
making space for people to live shallow ecology/ light green environmentalism
e.g. the clearing of rain-forests can be justified if
All life is of equal value and has the right exist Only god has sovereignty over life
it can be shown to benefit humans
making space for farmland
Respect must also be shown towards trees and
the preservation of rainforest may also be the Humans have no special privileges and indeed plants
right thing to do provided it can be shown to have no responsibility towards other life forms
benefit humans because they may be reborn as one of these Rivers are seen as sacred, particularly the river
Hinduism Ganges
neither animals, nor plants have rights and any
respect shown to them is dependent on how Humans may use the natural resources of the
humans benefit earth but not abuse or exploit it.
since it is clear that destroying the environment Environmental ethics is therefore based on the
will bring about long-term harm to all species, entire world not just the concerns of humanity
utilitarians will weigh up the long term harm
against the short term gain made from exploiting
natural resources Human life has privileges
e.g. when in the Lake District there was a Needs of nature must be kept in balance
proposal to impose a 10mph speed limit on
windmere (a lake that lies within the national ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS Nature is something which can be used and Animals must not be pushed to the point of
park, much used by water sportsmen whose looks at the situation and weighs up whether the protected extinction because of possible need for them in
activities contribute substantially to the local moral course of action is the maximisation of
the future
economy) higher pleasures for present and future
e.g. Noah and the flood
quantitive utilitarianism
a Benthamite would have weighed up the At creation humanity is afforded dominion and This is seen as a duty to respect and conserve
amount of pleasure/pain for all those involved stewardship rather than exploit
Conservation of the living environment
the assumption that pleasure is a uniform The laws of KASHRUT state which foods can
feature of different types of experience and be eaten and which cannot
varies simply according to how much there is,
is questionable
The slaughtering practice of SHECHITAH is
designed to keep animal suffering to a minimum
this was the approach of David Pearce's NIB Judaism
would use a cost/benefit analysis
'Blueprint for a Green economy' (1995) Jewish teaching about these issues is complex
Also laws about which trees can be felled for
use in war and which cannot
it is easy to assess the economic benefit of
some of the elements in the situation
Teaching of rest on the Sabbath seen as
reminding humanity not to exploit nature or
power boating brings money into the area but other life forms
how can this be weighed against the loss of
Although human life as priority over other life
forms, teachings say that all beings exist for
but is money an appropriate measure of themselves not others
modern utilitarians
environmental goods?
e.g windmere
Although judaism sees the importance of
do peoples preferences accurately reflect what preserving/protecting nature the preservation of
is good for them environmental econnomics would say that human life is more important
tranquility is also of value and that it is simply a
should the fate of the environment be case of determining the strength of preferences
Natural resources must not be wasted because
dependent on human preferences? for it
everything belongs to God
what may seem to be the advantage of the Muslim teaching on the environment is based
environment now may prove to be harmful in the we never know the final result of our actions on the teaching that the natural world was
long run created by god with all the elements in balance
therefore environmental preservation is mill puts the enjoyment & study of nature at the The relationship between humanity and the
qualitative utilitarianism
imperative top of his list of higher pleasures earth is one based on justice
utilitarian perspective Islam
considers that the moral course of action is the Humans are to enjoy and utilise the
maximisation of preference satisfaction for the environment but are also, as vice-regents to
current generation protect and promote all aspects of it
assuming that neglecting the environment has The prophet said that the world was a temple in
no major effect on the current generation the which to worship Allah
case for preserving the environment is weak
Sikhs respect the dignity of all life and believe
create employment that they should live in harmony with creation
stimulate economic growth Guru Nanak Dev Ji
"The earth is your mother"
provide a cost-effective energy supply
The relationship between humans and creation
loss of a beauty spot favoured by walkers Sikhism is seen as the wisdom of the universe
preference utilitarianism
loss of a good place for white water rafting Sikhs see the present environmental problems
but have associated costs as showing that humanity has tried to dominate
creation and has exploited and enslaved it
destruction of the habitat of some endangered in practical ethics - singer uses the e.g. of the
species/ wildlife hydroelectric dam across a gorge
It is through the wisdom of the universe that the
ecological balance can be restored
for a preference utilitarian the preference
qualitative utilitarian would consider the long satisfaction of a cheap source of electricity
term interests of future generations would outweigh the preferences of the began 1949 aldo leopold
"A thing is right when it tends to preserve the
for many people contact with the natural world is integrity, stability and beauty of the bionic
part of the good life community, It is wrong when it tends otherwise"
so experiences with nature are valued for their Leopold stated we need to develop an ethics to
e.g. swimming with dolphins deal with humans relationship to land , animals
own good not just as an instrumental good
& plants and to extend our social conscience
from people to land and that it is not right to see
Michael LaBoissiere argues in the the natural world simply in terms of its economic
'Philosopher's Magazine' that species should be worth to humans
allowed to die out as this is just part of the
natural process of evolution
first is concerned mostly with pollution, depletion
of natural resources and the usefulness of the
humans are a natural species and so any earth for humans (anthropocentrism)
1973 Arne Naess stated that there are 2
species that become extinct as a result of opposing view
ecology movements
human activity is simply becoming naturally
extinct second is concerned with the richness, diversity
deep ecology
and intrinsic value of all the natural world
but this does not mean that humans should
humans have no obligation to prevent natural argued for the intrinsic value/inherent worth of
have a free hand in eradicating species even
extinction the environment
when it would benefit humanity
however a draft of the UN report on climate called this ecosophy
according to Naess every being has an equal
shows that fast-developing countries like India & 'by ecosophy I mean a philosophy of ecological
often though that environmental concerns about right to live & blossom
China have slowed their rising greenhouse gas harmony or equilibrium"
the climate are the concern of industrialised
emissions by more than the total cuts
western nations
demanded of the rich nations by the Kyoto this view requires a change in how humans
protocol relate to the natural world
so nature does not exist to serve humans -
Ness rejected any idea that humans are more
many developing countries argue that they humans are simply a part of nature and all Naess opposes the christian view of
important because they have a
should not be denied the right to develop their species have a right to exist for their own sake stewardship as arrogant and depending on the
economies which inevitably means an increase regardless of their utility to humans idea of superiority which underlies the thought
in energy consumption that humans exist to watch over nature like an
intermediatry between God & creation
also say that the responsibility for climate
this does not means that developing countries
change lies with the developed nations and their all life has value in itself, independently of its
are inactive
industrial activities utility to humans
china believes that population growth is a key richness and diversity contribute to life's well
element in controlling emissions and that their being and have value in themsleves
one child policy introduced in the 1980's had the Libertarian extension - deep ecology
side effect of slowing global warming by limiting
the Chinese population humans have no right to reduce this richness
and diversity except to satisfy vital needs in a
responsible way
the most important question is whether
developing countries should be restricted in
their development if this development is the impact of humans in the world is excessive
Naess and rapidly worsening
environmentally damaging
Naess and sessions listed an eight fold deep-
ecology platform Human lifestyles and population are key
but this is closely related to the extreme levels
of poverty that many endure, partly as a elements of this impact
population growth in developing countries is
consequence of the international economic
order which helps the economic interests of the the diversity of life including cultures can flourish
industrial nations only with reduced human impact
much of the environmental problems and The developing third world and attempts to basic idealogical, political, economic,
destruction is related to international economic restrict development technological structures must therefore change
those who accept the foregoing points have an
developing countries are the exporters of obligation to participate in implementing
increasing amounts of raw materials/natural necessary changes and to do so
resources to maintain the wealth of the peacefully/democratically
industrial nations
radically reduce the earths population
millions of children die annually of
malnutrition/easily curable diseases
nearly 3/4 of the population of developing abandon all goals of economic growth
countries live below the poverty line
in the same period millions of hectares of
conserve diversity of species
natural tropical forests are destroyed
live in small self reliant communities
one of the reasons of the destruction of
trees/habitats is the issue of pollution and
demand for biofuels which have an important Therefore humans should 'touch the earth lightly'
role in combatting climate change
especially as the human pop. is increasing
many consider that these ideas are impractical
biofules use the energy contained in organic rapidly and humans have same right to
& unrealistic
matter to produce ethanol (an alternative to reproduce as other species
fossil fuels)
as a result Richard Sylvan developed an
however again the principle of looking at the biofules alternative approach called 'deep green theory'
long term needs to be applied as land is being involving respect but not reverence for the
switched from forest or agriculture to plant palm environment
many say that this is immoral as the heavily
subsidised biofuel industry is diverting land emphasises the interdependence of all sees environment as a whole entity valuable in
biofuels could be important for the future and which should be used for food production to ecosystems itself
historically we do not have avery good record of have a positive impact on the climate but there feed people in the developing nations
this as our treatment o the whaling industry and need to be guarantees in place that the crops Philosophical approaches to the environemnt
challenges the view that humans are the most
the russian fishing off antarctica were hardly will only be grown/ harvested/ distributed/
important species and sees humans as part of a
good models of sustainability owned in such a way that climate/ local
living whole - gaia
societies/ environment benefit
looking at the earth from space lovelock saw a
however we are all affected by climate change
all the life forms of the planet are part of gaia planet transformed by a self regulating living
system - almost a living being
said that the ecological problems we face are a initially may be thought that this is due to
matter of justice towards the poorer countries Archbishop Of Canterbury Rowan Williams developed countries causing all environmental
problems lovelock argued that Gaia is regulated by the later rejected this position and saw the
who bear the consequences of the actions of "The ecological crisis challenges us to be
living organisms within to maintain suitable regulation as conducted by the whole of Gaia
the richer nations and those who will succeed reasonable"
conditions for growth and development not just living organisms
examined the fossil evidence which showed that
message of the 1990 Helsinki declaration which
climatic change had taken place within very
argued for sustainable development
narrow range so that life was never destroyed
repeated by Gordon Brown Eco problems affect us all and so we need to not random but intelligently organised carried
"If our economies are to flourish, if global develop a greater sense of interdependence conditions seemed to have favoured life
out by Gaia (rather than God)
poverty is to be banished and if the well-being of and a sense of global responsibility
the world's people enhanced we must make
sure we take care of the natural environment this theory opposes the darwinian idea of
and resources on which our economic activity Is protection of the environment only an issue survival of the fittest whereby species evolve to
depends" for the rich? suit the conditions available and says that the
God could be an explanation for the existence condition of the earth is managed by Gaia
of Gaia and for maintaining her in existnec
so they have a responsibility to export this
the world is a result of self engineering not
vast improvement through education of
productive farming - then exported to
surrounding villages It is true that richer nations are able to provide there are many types of algae that are resistant
e.g. millennium village Sauri kenya where half environmental improvements beyond that of to UV radiation so even if the ozone were
funding came from local/national government poorer nations destroyed life would continue/new life evolve
gives a practical solution at a small level
and half came from international community
on bikini atoll life has returned despite nuclear
also visible in the UK with growth of
bomb testing 1946-1958
biregionalism (local produce farmers markets)
Ecologic extension - eco-holism
same can be said of chernobyl despite 1986
average norwegian is better off than average most popular form is lovelocks Gaia hypothesis
Wealth is not the only factor involved in according to lovelock life cannot be destroyed disaster
american however contributes half as much to
environmental destruction
climate change
this theory challenges humans to change their
perceptions and see themselves as part of a
Number of approaches to this question
Human life may be wiped out but they are just a whole
depending on religious/philosophical stance
part of Gaia who would survive without her
presence if we abuse Gaia we risk our own survival as
As visible through peter singer this view ignores
Gaia owes us nothing and we owe her our
our interdependence and promotes a selfish christianity and many other religions tend to say
animals do not possess rational thought, free entire existence
view that has led us to exploit our natural world humans are above other creatures being in the
will nor are they moral agents
for our own benefit leading as Kant pointed out image of God
to our downfall What are the issues? the earth is a unified holistic living entity with
Is protection of the environment only for the ethical worth and in the long run humanity has
good and benefit of humankind? no particular significance but we are part of it
however whether one takes a light/dark green
and all the organisms of the earth are
approach both aim to protect the environment The ideas of dark green ecology movemnet
though with different starting come into force here
he now considers that the global temperatures
rise higher and higher and there are more
the reasons for protecting the environment
Bright greens have emerged believing that climatic disasters
become less important than the fact that we
using new technologies and better designs are
actually use our knowledge and skills to do
a the way forward to protect the environment
something about it the planet may not be able to recover as he
previously thought with a 3c temp rise the rain-
forests will start to die releasing vast new
Jonathon Porritt chair of the governments
amounts of CO2
sustainable development commission caused
any family with ore than 2 children - totally
conflict with suggestion to curbing population
growth through contraception & abortion must lovelocks latest book is more pessimistic about in the oceans the algae will fail and stop
be at heart of policies to fight global warming climate change and our reluctance to confront it absorbing carbon
e.g. eco light bulbs there will be floods, crop failures & massive
environmental policies are now part of every human migrations
e.g. enforced recycling
"we have no time to experiment with visionary
energy sources: civilisation is in imminent
environmental taxes count for 7% of total tax & In the UK it could be said that eco friendliness is lovelock advocates the rapid expansion of
danger and has to use nuclear energy now, or
social contributions enforced by law through advert sand taxation nuclear power to cut fossil fuel emissions
suffer the pain soon to be inflicted by our
outraged planet"
not possible to know exactly whether people do
take personal responsibility for the environment How far should humans be forced to become
environmentally responsible? Natural diversity is available as resource natural diveristy has an intrinsic value
or whether gov and media is a subtle force
species should be saved as a resource for
bike rental provision of public transport species should be saved for their intrinsic value
but governments and businesses must bear perhaps people would live a environmentally
some of the responsibility non-destructive lifestyle if the opportunity arose Pollution should be decreased if it threatens Decrease in pollution has priority over economic
economic growth growth
biodegradable packaging Shallow VS. Deep
population growth threatens ecological human population is excessive today,
perhaps policies should be introduced that have equilibrium Overdeveloped countries
governmnental backing but are relieant on
individual responsibility
Resource means resource for humans resource means resource for living things
potentially a new look at the environment &
decrease in standard of living is intolerable decrease in quality of life is intolerable
economics along the lines of EF Schumachers


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