Religious determinism

  • Created by: Sc1602
  • Created on: 06-01-20 16:10
Job 14:5
"A person’s days are determined; you have decreed the number of his months and have set limits he cannot exceed. "
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Romans 8:29
"For those God foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son..."
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What was the title of Augustine's work on Determinism?
"Doctrine of Original Sin"
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At the time, Augustine's theory became the...
official theology on predestination of the Catholic Church
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Augustine said that the outcome of original sin is that...
sin became a major defect of the human character (tainted Adam and Eve's original perfect nature)
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Augustine called this defect...
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Concupiscence is...
a Latin term meaning "longing" (in terms of human senses e.g. food, sex)
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What is concupiscence in opposition to?
the desire to know and love God
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Is concupiscence a sin?
It is not a sin in itself, but it prevents a moral agent from being able to choose Godly goodness and resist the temptations of earthly pleasures
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What are the two reasons why concupiscence is passed on from Adam and Eve to every human born?
1. all humanity is descended from Adam, so all people inherit Adam's sin and guilt 2. all humanity is born from sexual intercourse, which is a result of concupiscence (except Jesus, who wasn't conceived by intercourse)
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The inheritance of concupiscence leads all humanity to be born...
massa peccati
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Massa Peccati
Latin term meaning lump/mass of sin
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What does Augustine mean by saying all humanity is born massa peccati?
Concupiscence results in all humanity being tempted by earthly materialism, instead of living godly lives
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Augustine argued that humanity's ability to freely choose...
is lost to sin, and moral agents are predestined to sin
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Did Augustine believe that humans have free will?
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Augustine still argues that humans have free will because...
it is our original essential godly nature
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Augustine said that (quote) humanity is "so...
hopelessly corrupted that we are absolutely incapable of doing anything good by our own forces"
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Liberum Arbitrium
Latin phrase meaning that a person has the power to make choices that are free from predestination
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Concupiscence acts as a secondary human nature which...
overrides our essential human nature of liberum arbitrium
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Augustine argues that humanity's free will (quote) "has been...
utterly wasted by sin"
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By God's grace, some people are...
chosen to be freed from the effects of concupiscence
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Can people earn freedom from concupiscence?
No. No one can do anything to earn or deserve God's grace
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The elect are...
those chosen by God before they are born to be freed from concupiscence
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the reprobates are...
those not chosen
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The elect are freed from concupiscence so they can respond...
in the right way to God
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Can the elect sin?
Yes, but through Jesus' atonement they are forgiven for their sins and would be sinless at death, so they are saved
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Who did Augustine say Jesus' atonement was for?
the elect only
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Augustine quote on Jesus' atonement
"it is unthinkable that He should deliberately have shed his blood for hell-dwellers-to-be"
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The reprobates remain in sin, because of concupiscence, so at death...
they would perish in hell
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Some say it seems cruel that God would save some and not others. What is Augustine's response to this?
as a result of the Fall, humans are incapable of understanding the workings of divine salvation
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When and where did the Catholic Church fully approve Augustine's ideas on predestination?
418AD at the Council of Carthage
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Who presented a predestination theology several centuries after Augustine?
John Calvin (1509-1564)
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What is Calvin's predestination theory called?
"Doctrine of Election"
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What two fundamental beliefs did Calvin base his theory upon?
1. God is sovereign over all things 2. "sola scriptura" (the Bible is the source of all knowledge about God)
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How does the Calvin's belief that God is sovereign over all things link with his theory?
God's omnipotence means that he controls everything, including who will be saved at death and who will perish in hell
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How does Calvin's belief in sola scriptura link to his theory?
Calvin believed that the Bible pointed to predestination
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Calvin believed that humanity's sinful nature was as a result of...
the Fall
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Calvin believed that because of the Fall, humanity cannot...
respond in faithful obedience to God's commands in the Bible
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What two things does Calvin mean by "totally depraved?"
1. humanity's intellect to choose to follow scripture is ruined 2. the human race is without hope for salvation (but this doesn't mean that people are sinning 24/7)
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Romans 8:30
"And those he predestined, he also called; those he called, he also justified; those he justified, he also glorified"
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Ephesians 2:8
"For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith—and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God"
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Based on scripture Calvin believed that some people would receive salvation, and these people are determined by...
God alone
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What two groups did God predestine?
the elect and the reprobates
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When are the elect chosen?
before they are born
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Can people earn salvation?
no, a person cannot do anything in their lifetime to change their status
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The elect have been chosen by God to have their sins forgiven through...
the atonement of Christ (Jesus' sacrifice on the cross allows the sins of the elect to be passed on to him)
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Why does God choose to save some and not others?
it is a mystery from a human perspective (but Calvin says that the number of elect was fixed by God from eternity)
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Can someone know if they are part of the elect?
Calvin argued that it was possible for one to guess their status as the elect because they can feel "the calling of God"
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Calvin believed that the elect would generally...
show traits that reflect their Godly status (e.g. doing good works)
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Can the elect sin?
Yes, but God predestines them to have faith in Christ's atonement ("irresistible grace) so when they sin they seek forgiveness and their sins will be passed to Jesus, so they will be sinless at death and receive salvation)
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Why is it not possible for one to try and act in an elect way?
they do not have God's Spirit guiding them (it is by the work of the Holy Spirit that the elect seek atonement for their sins)
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John 6:37
"All those the Father gives me will come to me, and whoever comes to me I will never drive away."
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Calvin believed that the reprobates would generally...
show traits of why they will go to hell after death (sinful lives)
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Due to the Fall, the reprobates are "deaf...
and blind" to the message of the gospels (and so won't have faith in Christ's atoning nature and the Holy Spirit is not present in their lives, so they cannot resist sin and their sin will remain on their hearts)
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Mark 4:11
"He told them, “The secret of the kingdom of God has been given to you. But to those on the outside everything is said in parables""
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The reprobates remain in sin and these sins will...
condemn them to hell post-mortem
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What is limited atonement?
Calvin's belief that Jesus only died for the elect
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John 10:26
"but you do not believe because you are not my sheep."
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What was the Synod of Dort?
an international meeting in 1619 (after Calvin's death) to settle issues surrounding predestination
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Calvinists summed up Calvin's "Doctrine of Election" into 5 key points which make the acronym...
TULIP (total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistible grace, perseverance of the elect)
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Total depravity means that...
humans are totally corrupted because of the Fall, and cannot choose good over evil
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unconditional election means that...
God alone chooses the elect and election is therefore not based upon any good works of the moral agent during their lifetime
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limited atonement means that...
Christ's death and atonement for humans sins was for the elect only
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irresistible grace means that...
the elect cannot resist the inward calling to believe the gospels and seek forgiveness of their sins through Jesus' atonement
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perseverance of the elect means that...
the elect will remain in a state of irresistible grace until they reach salvation
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the Synod concluded by...
accepting Calvinist theories
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Romans 8:29


"For those God foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son..."

Card 3


What was the title of Augustine's work on Determinism?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


At the time, Augustine's theory became the...


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Augustine said that the outcome of original sin is that...


Preview of the front of card 5
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