psychology unit 3

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Bandura et a 'bobo doll study' - social learning theory
Adult model acted either agrresively to bobo or not and children observed. Children were frustrated when shown attractive toys which couldnt play with then put in room with bobo. Children in agrresive condition reproduced lots of aggression vice vers
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Vicarious reiinforcement
observe the behaviours of others then learn consequences and therefore earn what is appropriate
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Bandura- mental representation
caimed a chid must form a mental representation of events and learn the possibe outcomes therefore when oppotunitys rise is future they can act accordingly
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Philllips- social earning theory applied to aduts
found that daily homocide rates in us amost aways increased in the week following a major boxing match suggesting they imitated it
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Le bon - deindividuation
Claimed that in a crowd the combination of anonymity, suggestability and contagion means a collective mind takes possesion of inidividual. In groups people feel ess identifiable which makes them lose self control and act against social norms
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Zimbardo - deindividuation
asked groups of 4 girls to give electric shocks to student to aid learning some wore bulky lab coats/anonymous some showed faces and wore badges. anonymous pp shocked pp for twice as long as normal- become aggresive when faceless
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diener et al - deindividuation
observed 1300 trick or treating children. stealing and antisocial behaviours more ikey to occur in arge groups and costumes. has external validity as no lab experiment
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prentice dunn and rogers- deidiviuation
suggested it is reduced self awareness rather than just anonymity. if they lose focus when part of a group they may take cues of how to behave from the crowd and no longer maker rational decisions.
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conducted research into real ife displays of aggresion shown by 11 year olds in sport, half players in each team wore uniform, uniformed teams acted more agrresively but not apllicable to females.
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irwin and cressey - insitutional aggresion
importation model- claimed that prisoners bring their own personal histories and traits with them which influences their adaption into the prison
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paterline and peterson - institutional aggression
the deprivation model- aggresion is a result of stressful and oppresive conditions. eg crowding causes frustration
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harer and steffensmeier - institutional aggresion
supported importation model in terms of age, gender, race. Collected date from 58 US prisons and found black inmates had significantly higher rates of violent behaviour but lower rates of alcohol/drug abuse.
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mccorckle et al - institutional aggresion
supported deprivation model and found that overdrowding, lack of privacy and meaningful activity inflluenced peer violence.
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nijman et al - instituional aggresion
rejected mccockrles claim suggesting increased personal space failed to decrese the level of violent inicidents.
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mann et al - neural and hormonal mechanisms
said drugs alter serotonin levels. Gave 35 healthy pp dexfenfluramine ( knwon to deplete serotonin) used a questionnaire to assess hostility and aggression levels and found dexfenfluramine treatment inmales was associated with and increase in aggress
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scerbo and raine - neural and hormonal mechanisms
a meta analysis of 29 studies examined neurotransmitter levels in antisocial children and found consistantly low levels of serotnin in aggresive children.
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debbs et al -hormonal mechanisms
measured salivary testosterone in violent and non-violent criminals. Those with highest testosterone had history of violent crimes whereas those with low had non violent history.
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the challenge hypothesis - neural and hormonal mechanisms
male testosterone levels should rise in response to challenges eg threat over a female
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virkunnen- neural and hormonal mechanisms
said high levels of cortisol inhibit testosterone levels and therefore inhibit aggresion
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raleigh et al - neural and hormonal mechanisms
did a study on monkeys where they fed them diets high in tryptophan (increases serotonin levels) exhibited decreased levels of aggresion. vice versa.
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bond - neural and hormonal mechanisms
found anti depressants which elevate serotonin levels tend to reduce irritability and aggression.
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albert et al - neural and hormonal mechanisms
found that although many studies show a correlation in testosterone and aggression others show no such relationship.
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mcburnett et al - neural and hormonal mechanisms
did a 4 year study on boys with behavioural problems. boys with consistantly low levels or cortisol began antisocial acts at a younger age and exhibited 3x the number of agrresive symptoms compared to boys with higher or fluctuatiing levels of cortis
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brunner et al - genetic factors
suggested that low low levels of serotonin are associated with agrresive bahavour as a result of MAOA. Study into dutch family where large no of males bahved in violent manner (****,arson,stabbing) and found they have low levels of MAOA- defect gene
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caspi et al - genetic factors
supports brunner- studied 500 male children with high and low MAOA, those with low showed more aggresie haviour however only if mistreated as children. shows interaction bewtween genes and environment
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plomin et al - genetic factors
did a replication and banduras bobo study with twin pairs. Exposed to adults exhibitting aggresive to behaviour to bobo doll. Researchers found no differences in correlations between MZ and DZ twins suggesting diff in aggresion is environmental .
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daley and wilson - evolutionary explanation
claim that men have evilved sevral diff strategies to stop partners from comminting adultry. Violence if fuelled from jelousy
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buss - evolutionary explanation
buss suggests males have a number of strategies for the purpose of keeping a mate including direct gaurding and negative inducements
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wilson et al - evolutionary explanation
found women who agrred with questionnaire items such as 'your husband is jelous and doesnt want you to talk to another man' were 2x as likely to have experience pysical violence.
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shackleford et al - evolutionary explanation
uxorocide- as not all men possess resources that might be used to rpvide benefits they may be prone to using violence
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wilson and daley- evolutionary explanation
support shacklefords claim. did a study into homocides in detroit and found 41% of male perpetrators were unemplyed suggesting a lack of resources and innablity to attract long term mates leads to social competetion and therefore violence
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daley and wilson- evolutionary explanation
suggested the death of a partner from physical violence may be an unintended outcome of an avolutionary adaption designed for control rather than death
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shackleford et al - evolutionary explanation
supported buss theory on mate retention by showing a positive correlation bwteen secual jelous, mate retention strategies and violence towards women.
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mydral - group display
suggest the fundamental cause od a lynching in the US was fear of the *****, out of 4000 plus lynchings repoert 3/4 were black.
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patterson - group display
claims lynch mobs were more active during this period as it was the time of social transition (collpase of slavery) and felt at risk.
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Balocks - group display
power-threat hypothesis - says groups that pose a threat the majority and likely to be discriminated and victims
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Sosis - group display
By engaging in painful rituals it shows an individuals commitment to the group
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zahavi and zahavi - group display
said it helps to serve detterents for anyone who doesnt believe in the teachings but wants to take advantage of its benefits
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wilson - group display
suggests that natural selection has favoured those genes that consider memebers of their own group but intolerant to outsiders to avoide attack
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podaliri and balestri - group display
illustrated wilson theory within italian footbal crowds where racist chants came from either side.
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sis and bresller - group display
found those displaying greatest commitment were most commited memebers and therefore lasted the longest
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foldesi - group display
provides support between the link of xenophobia and violent display among hungarian football crowds. Racist and violent incidents.
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Vicarious reiinforcement


observe the behaviours of others then learn consequences and therefore earn what is appropriate

Card 3


Bandura- mental representation


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Card 4


Philllips- social earning theory applied to aduts


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Le bon - deindividuation


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