Psychology- Neuroscience

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what does the hindbrain consist of
Cerebellum, Pons, Medulla
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what does the mid brain do
•Connects upper&lower region of brain • Coordinates and integrates sensory and motor process
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describe the Reticular formation
o In both Hind and Mid brain o Regulates alertness and modifies muscle movement
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what does the forebrain consist of
Cerebral cortex, Hypothalamus, Thalamus and limbic system (Amygdala, Hippocampus)
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what does the cerebellum do
-Coordinates movement -Responsible for balance and some cognitive abilities
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what does the medulla do
Regulation of sleep, arousal and some muscle movement
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what do the pons do
Controls vital reflexive functions like breathing
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describe the cerebral cortex
Involved in cognitive processes such as; thinking, learning, memory, perception
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describe the limbic system
Loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical structur
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what does the frontal lobe consist of
Primary Motor Cortex, Broca’s area, Association
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Primary Motor Cortex
An area in the brain that is involved in the initiation and control of voluntary body movements
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Broca’s area
An area in the brain’s left frontal lobe that controls the muscles of the face, tongue, jaw and throat and is responsible for the production of clear fluent speech.
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Towards the front of the frontal lobe, involved with cognitive functions such as judgment, foresight, decision-making and the use of strategies.
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what does the occipital consist of
primary visual cortex
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what is the Primary visual cortex
An area located at the base of each occipital lobe that receives visual information from the eyes
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what does the temporal consist of
primary auditory cortex, wernicke's area, association areas
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what is the Primary auditory cortex
The area in each temporal lobe that is specifically involved with hearing
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what is the Association area
Towards the front of the lobe, involved with cognitive functions such as judgment, foresight, decision-making and the use of strategies
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what is the Wernicke’s area
An area in the brain’s left temporal lobe involved with the comprehension of speech
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what does the Parietal consist of
Somatosensory cortex
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what is the Somatosensory cortex
An area in the brain that receives sensory information from the skin senses and body parts
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what are the cerebral hemispheres
•Corpus callosum•Sperry•Left hemisphere•Right hemisphere
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what does the right hemisphere do
recognition of emotions, spatial and visual thinking
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what does the left hemisphere do
verbal and analytic functions
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what is the sperry
the study of split brains
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what does the Peripheral Nervous System do
Transmits information between •Sense organs •Muscles •Glands •The central nervous system
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what does the central nervous system do
processes information provided by the sensory systems and other parts of the body
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what doe the Atomic Nervous System do
Links the CNS with the bodies internal organs and glands, for feedback to the brain.
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what does the nervous system consist of
CNS, Sensory receptors, Automatic NS, Peripheral NS, atomic NS
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what does the somatic do
controls voluntary muscles
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what do sensory receptors do
initiates sensory transduction by creating graded potentials
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whats the difference between the CNS and PNS
CNS processes the info that is received, PNS sends/transmits the info to the CNS
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what are the 2 main divisions in the PNS
somatic, automatic
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what is the main parts of the brain structure
corpus collosum, forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
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what does the automatic do
controls involuntary muscles
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what does the cerebral cortex consist of
frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe and occipital lobe
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what does the corpus collosum do
connects the right and left hemispheres
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what are the major systems in the somatic division (PNS)
sensory-info from nerves to CNS, motor-info from brain/spinal cord to CNS
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what are the major systems in he autonomic division (PNS)
sympathetic-fight/flight, parasympathetic-stimulation of feed/breed or rest/digest
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what is homeostasis
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what is a neuron
nerve cell that is a basic building block of the nervous system
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a junction between two nerve cells consisting of a minute gap which impulses pass through
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what is the fight or flight response
automatic response enabling you to deal with sudden threats; flee or face
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A branch like extension of a neuron’s nucleus that is specialized to detect and receive information from other neurons
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Soma (cell body)
Cell body that contains the nucleus in the cell
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A single tube like extension of a neuron that transmits information from the neuron to the other cells in the body, including other neurons, muscles and glands
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Myelin sheath
The white fatty covering that helps insulate the axon from the axons from other neurons
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Axon terminal
A small branch at the end of each axon that contains tiny sacs called synaptic buttons or terminal buttons that hold neurotransmitters
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Synaptic button
A small knob like structure at the end of neuron’s axon that stores a neurotransmitter(s)
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The point of communication between neurons
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Exit only in the CNS and carry and integrate messages between sensory and motor neurons
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Transmission of neural messages (within the neuron)
•Only one direction •Electro chemical by movement of ions into and out of cell across the cell membrane
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Transmission of neural messages (Between neurons)
Chemical – neurotransmitters
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A chemical substance •Manufactured by a neuron •Stimulates or blocks the activity of an adjacent neuron
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Within neuron transmition (flowchart)
Dendrites - soma - axon - synaptic button
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Between neuron transmition (flowchart)
Axon terminal – synaptic gap – dendrites
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what is Psychology
The systematic study of thoughts, feelings and behaviour and the factors that influence these
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Someone who is professionally qualified in psychology and is registered by the appropriate state or territory authority
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A medically qualified professional who specilises in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of mental
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Sport psychologist
Assists athletes to maximize their performance, participation and enjoyment
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Community psychologist
Works with individuals, community groups and agencies helping people achieve their goals in areas such as community health and welfare
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Any observable action made by a living person or animal & is an act, which are observable, of expressing feelings and thoughts.
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Thoughts and feelings...
cannot be seen
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Educational and development psychologist
Assists children and adults with learning and developmental problems and issues
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Counseling psychologist
Assists personal, relationship, work and lifestyle problems
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Clinical neuropsychologist
Works on prevention, diagnosis or treatment of mental health problems and issues
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Health psychologist
Promotes and maintains health-related behaviour and is directly involved in improvement of the healthcare system
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Clinical psychologist
Assesses and manages people with problems associated with brain damage
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Academic psychologist
Conducts research on areas of interest in psychology usually combined with teaching and supervision of psychology students
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Forensic psychologist
Works with people in legal and correctional service settings
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Organisational psychologist
Assists people with workplace-related problems and issues
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Responsibilities of the researcher
• Physical and emotional safety of the procedure for the participants • Accurate reporting • Professional conduct
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Participant rights
• Informed consent • Debriefing • Confidentially • Voluntary participation • Right to withdraw • Deception
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What is Neuroscience?
The study of how the nervous system develops, its structure and what it does. Neuroscientists focus on the brain and its impact on behavior and cognitive functions.
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• The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system Humans have about 100 billion neurons in their brain alone
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• The evidence which will form the results and be the basis of conclusions
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Qualitative Data
• Information about the qualities or characteristics of what is being studied • Descriptions, words, pictures, meanings, audio or video recordings
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Quantitative Data
• Numerical information about the quantity or amount of what is being studied
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Objective Data
•Based on measurements of a participants response that can be directly observed and verified • Considered to be free from bias • Responses can be •Real •Physical • Demonstrated • Can be verified by an instrument or tool (reaction time)
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Subjective Data
•Based on self reports provided by participants • Cannot be verified • May not be accurate • Self thoughts that cannot be verified e.g. mood test
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Used to test whether one variable or factor influences or causes a change in another variable • Researcher manipulates variables of interest e.g. assigns participant to • Consume caffeine vs. no caffeine
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•Something that can vary in amount or kind over time
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Independent Variable
•The variable in an experiment which the researcher manipulates or changes in order to assess the effects on participants responses • The variable we are purposely changing
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Dependent Variable
•The variable in an experiment the researcher chooses to measure in order to assess the effects of the independent variable (s) • A change in the dependent variable is assumed to be a result of the manipulation of the independent variable(measuring)
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Experimental Group
• The group in an experiment who is exposed to the independent variable
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Control Group
• The group in an experiment who is not exposed to the independent variable
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Random Assignment/ Random allocation
• A procedure for allocating participants to a various groups of an experiment ensuring that participants are just as likely to be placed in the experimental group as the control group
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Extraneous Variables
• Any variable apart from the independent variable that can cause a change in the dependent variable and therefore affect the results of an experiment in an unwanted way
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Participant/subject Variable
• A type of extraneous variable involving the independent characteristics of participants in an experiment
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Placebo effect
• When a person’s response is influenced by their beliefs or expectations rather than the specific procedure intended to produce that response
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Situational variables
• A type of extraneous variable involving factors associated with the experimental situation
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Quantitative Observational
• Capitalize on pre existing differences in variable of interest • E.g. younger vs. older adolescents • E.g. low vs. high resting heart rate
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3 ways to designs an experiment
• Quantitative • Qualitative • Experimental
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• Results have been produced that accurately measure the behaviour or event that it claims to have measured
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Variability or dispersion
• A spread of scores: not all scores are the same
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Measures of variability – Range
• The difference between the highest and lowest score
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Interpreting means, medians and graphs Need to consider:
• The clustering of the scores of all participants • The range • The presence, or not, of any scores that are different
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Possible consequences of misuse of alcohol/drugs
Losing friends, Issues at work/school, Money problems, Family issues, Fitness & health
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Outward observable expressions of behaviour include...
-Intentional -Unintentional -Facial expressions -Change in the body posture -Vocal qualities *Pitch *Speed
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4 different examples of expressive behaviour
-Smile (happy) -Slowed speech (sad) -Slouching posture (depressive/tired) -Pursed lips (angry)
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Basic emotions
• Anger • Fear • Happiness • Sadness • Contempt • Disgust • Surprised
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what did ekman do?
Ekman used cross-cultural studies in his research on facial expressions. Although some cultures freely express emotions whilst others are more conservative they may still recognize the facial expression.
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Physiological responses
• Increased heartbeat • Racing pulse • Increase in breathing • Tense muscles • Dry mouth • Butterflies in stomach
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–the character or state of being universal; existence or prevalence everywhere
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what is cross cultural study
when multiple cultures participate
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what does the mid brain do


•Connects upper&lower region of brain • Coordinates and integrates sensory and motor process

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describe the Reticular formation


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what does the forebrain consist of


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what does the cerebellum do


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