Psychology - Memory

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What is meant by encoding?
Encoding is the form in which information is stored. E.g. a word which is seen may be encoded if it is changed into a sound or a meaning (semantic encoding)
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What is the difference between the capacity of STM and the capacity of LTM?
The capacity of STM is much less than the capacity of LTM. STM can hold 7+/-2 items of information whereas LTM can hold an unlimited amount
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What are the main features of the working memory model?
Central executive; phonological loop; episodic buffer; visuo-spacial sketchpad; phonological store; articulatory control centre
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What does the central executive do? (2)
1) it doesn't store any information (limited capacity) 2) it allocates attention to the other systems
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What does the phonological loop do? (2)
1) it deals with spoken and written material 2) e.g. used to remember phone number
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What does the phonological loop consist of? (2)
1) phonological store 2) articulatory control process
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What does the phonological store do?
(inner ear) holds information in a speech based form (spoken words)
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What does the articulatory control process do?
(inner voice) used to rehearse and store verbal information
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What does the episodic buffer do? (2)
1) Integrates information from the central executive and LTM 2) acts as a temporary store for all types of information
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What does the visuo-spatial sketchpad do? (2)
(inner eye) stores and processes movement, actions and non-moving visual patterns 2) used for encoding and analysing information in terms of its size, shape and colour
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What is one strength of the WMM?
Emperical, lab based evidence to support it. E.g. Baddley - CE cannot allocate attention to 2 tasks using the same component
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What is one limitation of the WMM?
Not a complete explanation of memory. The CE is too vague & infact more complex e.g. brain tumour, reasoning tests - did well, decision making test - not well.
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What research has been shown about age of witness and eyewitness testimony?
1) Yarmey - 651 adults stopped, talking to for 15 secons. 2 mins later, asked them to describe what woman was wearing. Results - no significant difference in accuracy but confidence levels higher in young people
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What reasearch has been shown about age of witness and eyewitness testimony?
Memon et al - compared young (16-33) and old (60-82). Results - short delay (35 mins) no difference in accuracy; long delay (1 week) older p's significantly less accurate. Conclusion - age only has effect after long period of time
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What is one study that has investigated the effect of anxiety on EWT?
Yuilee&Cutsnall-real life event.Robbery of gunstore(robber shot & killed by owner).48 hours later,21 EW interviewed by police.4/5 months later,13 EW interviewed by researchers.Results-more upset=more accurcate.Conclusion-anxiety improves accuracy
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How can students revise for an exam? (2)
1) anogrmas - word made & each letter is first letter of a word 2) mind map - key information, colours, pictures
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What is some research into the effects of misleading information on eyewitness testimony?
1) 45 p's (uni students) 5 groups of 9 p's. Witnessed car accident & asked leading questions which distorted accuracy. 2) 150 p's, 3 groups of 50. Shown film of accident & asked to estimate speed of cars when smashed/hit into eachother.
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Card 2

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What is the difference between the capacity of STM and the capacity of LTM?

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The capacity of STM is much less than the capacity of LTM. STM can hold 7+/-2 items of information whereas LTM can hold an unlimited amount

Card 3

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What are the main features of the working memory model?

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Card 4

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What does the central executive do? (2)

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Card 5

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What does the phonological loop do? (2)

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