Psychology- Cognitive

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Memory is defined as?
“the retention of learning or experience” – Gross 1996
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Capacity of STM is?
7+/-2 chunks - Miller
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Capacity of STM related research - Glanzer and Cunitz AO1
gave list of words to memorise. in condition 1) asked to recall immediately in 2) given distractor task and asked after 30 secs. In 1) expected serial position curve. in 2) disrupted recency effect. First word not forgotten as passed to LTM.
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Capacity of STM related research - Glanzer and Cunitz AO2
low ecological validity, unrepresentative sample, historically biased, culturally biased, chunk not easy to quantify or explain
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Duration of STM is?
18 - 30 seconds
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Duration of STM related research - Peterson and Peterson AO1
ps to recall trigram, given interference task (count back in 3s). Have to recall after time periods of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 seconds. 3 secs = 80% recall, 18 secs 10% recall.
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Duration of STM related research - Peterson and Peterson AO2
low ecological validity,researcher bias, cultural bias, ages bias, standardisation not upheld
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Multi store model of memory proposed by?
Atkinson and Shiffrin
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Multi store model of memory comprises of?
sense organs, enters sensory memory, with attention enters STM, if rehearsed passes to LTM. Without rehearsal, info is forgotten or lost from the STM.
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Multi store model of memory AO2
Model accounts for primary and recency effects, influential generated much research into memory, supported by HM case study (brain surgery damaged LTM but STM still fine). However, oversimplifies LTM and STM, role of rehearsal less important, one way
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Working memory model proposed by?
Baddeley and Hitch
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Working memory model comprises of?
input, sensory memory, with attention, central executive, visa spatial scratch pad and phonological loop, LTM
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Working memory model related research Baddeley and Hitch AO1
ask ps to perform two tasks at same time, a verbal reasoning and digit span tasks. as number of digits increased, verbal reasoning took fraction longer, but no errors. verbal reasoning used central executive and digit span used phonological loop
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Working memory model related research Baddeley and Hitch AO2 strengths
replaced idea of unitary STM. Explains more than MSM, making sense of tasks like problem solving, reasoning etc. Applies to real life tasks, reading and navigation. Supported by KF case study. Does not over emphasise importance of rehearsal for STM.
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Working memory model related research Baddeley and Hitch AO2 weaknesses
Lieberman criticises WMM, VSS implies all spatial info first visual, blind people have good spatial awareness. Little direct evidence for CE. Only involves STM, not comprehensive model of memory. Doesn't explain changes in processing ability from practice
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Card 2

Front

7+/-2 chunks - Miller

Back

Capacity of STM is?

Card 3

Front

gave list of words to memorise. in condition 1) asked to recall immediately in 2) given distractor task and asked after 30 secs. In 1) expected serial position curve. in 2) disrupted recency effect. First word not forgotten as passed to LTM.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

low ecological validity, unrepresentative sample, historically biased, culturally biased, chunk not easy to quantify or explain

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

18 - 30 seconds

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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