Psychology - Cognitive

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Who made the multistore model of memory?
Atkinson and shiffrin
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What was the case study for evidence of the distinction between LTM and STM? i.e. who was it of and who conducted the case study?
Shallice and Warrington - the case of KF
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What did they find with the case study of KF?
KF was a young man who got brain injuries from a motorcycle accident. His LTM was still intact because he was able to recall stored info and learn new info but his STM was affected. He had a recency effect of only one item. Shows stores are seperate
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Which study is evidence for the capacity of STM?
Miller. uses digit span technique. provided with a list of words to recall. average recall was 5-9 items or 7+/-2
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Which study was evidence for the duration of STM? CLUE: trigrams
Peterson and Peterson. Trigrams given to ppts and one conditon they were asked to recall them immediately, the other they asked to count backwards in threes, then recall.
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What were the findings of the trigram study?
immediate recall: 100% recall. 3secs delay: 80% recall. 6secs delay: 55% recall. 18secs delay: fewer than 10% recalled
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What study is evidence for encoding in STM?
Conrad. Ppts given a sequence of 6 consonants that sounded acoustically similar or acoustically dissimilar. Asked to write down the letters in the same order that they appeared. Found that ppts more likely to confuse with similar sounding.
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Evidence for capacity of LTM?
Supposed to remember for a lifetime. Bahrick. asked ppts to list the names of ex classmates through free recall, photo recognition or name recognition.
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Findings for the Bahrick study?
15 years after leaving 90% could recognise faces and 60% could free recall. 48 years after leaving 75% could recognise faces and 30% free recall. so in conlusion, LTM can be long but recall is better with a trigger.
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What are the factors affecting duration in LTM
Intention to recall. Amount of info to recall. Depth of learning.
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What are the factors affecting capacity in STM
Influence of LTM. Reading aloud. Pronunciation - Naveh-Benjamin and Ayres study of arabic and english speakers. Individual differences.
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Evidence for encoding in LTM
Baddeley. 75 ppts - divided into 4 groups. he used 4 categories of familiar words - acoustically similar, acoustically dissimilar, semantically similar, semantically dissimilar. after a delay of 20mins the ppts were asked to recall in the same order.
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What were the findings of the Baddeley study
performance on accoustically similar and dissimilar were the same but on semantically similar and dissimilar were different. recall in LTM was worse when words had same meaning
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Evidence for capacity in LTM
Linton spent 6 years creating a diary of 5500 personal events. tested herseld for recognition of events each month and found excellent recall of dates demonstrating the capacity of LTM
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What are some strengths for the multistore model of memory
has been an influential model- allowed psychologists to construct testable aspects of memory. evidence for seperate memory stores. Most research was lab based so reliable, standardised and controlled.
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What are some weakenesses of the MSM
reductionist - doesnt distinguish between the complex nature of STM. Emphasises the role of rehearsal but evidence shows that semantic info is better processed. Most research in lab - artificial, low EV.
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Who made the working memory model
Baddeley and Hitch
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What are the key components of the WMM
the central executive. the phonological loop. the visuo-spatial sketchpad. the episodic buffer.
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what are the differences between MSM and WMM
WMM more complex. processing info in MSM is passive and in WMM is active. STM in MSM is one component. MSM has fixed order. encoding in STM in MSM is acoustic and in WMM acoustic and visual. In MSM a clear explanation of how info transferred to LTM.
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What picture relates to the central executive and what is its job?
A boss. It controls and drives the system, decides how attention is directed, allocates the resources, has no storage capacity, cant multitask
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What is the role of the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
holds visual and spatial info for a very short time, you use it when planning a spatial task, i.e. going from your home to college.
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What is the role of the phonological loop?
It deals with auditory info and the order of info, Baddeley divided it into 2 groups: the auditory store - holds info in speech based form for 1-2 secs. The articulatory control process - rehearse verbal info form phonological store.
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What is the role of the episodic buffer?
General storage space for sounds and visual information. Integrates info from the central executive, the phonological loop, the visuo sketchpad and the LTM. Has limited capacity.
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Evidence for the phonological loop?
Baddeley, thompson and buchanan. presented ppts with words. condition one: one syllable words familliar, condition 2: polysyllable words. Short words remembered more ('word length effect') - capacity of loop determined by length of time took say word
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Evidence for visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Baddeley. ppts had to track a moving light with a pointer and at the same time given 1) describe all angles in letter F 2) perform verbal task. task one was difficult but task two was ok because it involved 2 different components.
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Evidence for central executive?
Bunge used MRI scans - showed with dual tasks there was more activation, indicating increased attentional demands in brain activity.
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Strengths for WMM
PET scans shows different areas of brain working for verbal and visual tasks. Complex STM is identified. evidence was controlled and standardised and reliable. Neurological evidence.
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Weaknesses of WMM
reductionist - doesnt give much detail about how LTM works. Central executive is not very well known and understood. Evidence can have low EV. Case studies are not representitive.
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Card 2

Front

What was the case study for evidence of the distinction between LTM and STM? i.e. who was it of and who conducted the case study?

Back

Shallice and Warrington - the case of KF

Card 3

Front

What did they find with the case study of KF?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which study is evidence for the capacity of STM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which study was evidence for the duration of STM? CLUE: trigrams

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Preview of the front of card 5
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