Psychology sleep

  • Created by: Chloe1345
  • Created on: 12-05-15 11:14
Morgan. Endogenous
Scn removed from hamsters and replaced mutant and foetal
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Silver et al Endogenous
Scn removed also from hamster.. Supports morgan
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Schshat,lubaschitzky & lavie. Endogenous
6 males 29 hrs 7/20mins trying to get to sleep. Took blood every 90 mins increase in melatonin
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Blake. Endogenous
Attention test of naval.. 8,10:30,1,3:30, and 9 most alert at 10:30/9 dip at 1
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Eysenck. Endogenous
Most alert at noon
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Siffre exogenous
6month in cave = 25hrs
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Falkard exogenous
Kate aldcroft 25days=30hrs
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Miles et al exogenous
Blind man =24.9 hrs
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Wever exogenous
Isolated bunker 25hrs
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Czeisler et al shift work
Takes 16 hrs to adjust to new shift patterns. Shifts better if they rotate with the clock
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Czeisler et al shift work
Utah plant workers
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Gordan shift work
Similarly results to czeisler et al in Philadelphia police
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Monk and falkard shift work
Rapid rotating shifts better than slow because they maintain fairly constant circadian rhythms. Slo= major disruptions
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Dawson and Campbell shift work
First night shift under 4 hrs bright light. Body temp didn't drop. Light reset endogenous clock
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Akerstedt shift work
1-4 sleep less deficit in REM
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Burch et al shift work
Disrupted circadian melatonin production
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Furlan et al shift work
Increase I heart disease.
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doesnt happen if travel north to south as no inner time conflict
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Hunt et al Jetlag
people recover fast from jetlag east-west (Disadvantage)
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Lew et al Jetlag
USA baseball . Teams from west coast traveled east (over 3 time zones) = fewer wins supported by Edwards et al (advantage)
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cho Jetlag
reduction on temporal lobe size. flew over 7 times zones worse with short turn around time. (Disadvantage)
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Stewart and Amir Jetlag
Rats emotionally upset , not as good as resetting innate clocks using light as a zeitgaber. emtional upset makes SCN less responsive to light.
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Sleep Stages
1) takes 15mins,brain waves syncronise, everything slows 2) eyemovement/muscles stop, sleep spindles 3)deep sleep, slow delta waves 4)disorintated if woken 5)REM dreaming each cycle lasts 90-110mins 5x a night
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Oswald life span changes of sleep
restoration theory.1st year 16hrs sleep after 1st year 12hrs 1/3 REM for growth and repair
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Delayed sleep phrase syndrom
pre-adolescence sleep more as adolescence have hormone production.
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Kripke et al life span changes of sleep
too much sleep=bad health.1million adults 6-7 sleep greater life expectancy compared to those who has 8+
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Evolutionary sleep theorists
old people stage 4 nearly non-exsistant- no deep sleep no production of growth hormones= loss of muscle tone.
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Dement life span changes of sleep
longitudinal. stanford summer sleep camp 24 10-12 yrs for 7 yers tracked sleep change, melatonin decrease signal puberty.
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Webb life span changes of sleep
differences between p's.consistant data from same p's but not overp's
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Meddis Evolutionary
slep time increased safety of animal as immobile.
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Siegal Evolutionary
sleep adoptive because energy conservation, smaller animals who metabolic rate is linked to high heat loss
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Horne Evolutionary
2 types of sleep 1)core/essentical 2)sleep/optional sleep different adoptive functions
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Meddis Evolutionary
babies longer sleep patterns to prevent exhaustion in parents.
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Empson Evolutionary
meddis theory is a waste of time. sleep is universal among adults
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Oswald Restoration theory
NREM-needed to restore bodily processes that have deteriorated during the day. REM; renewing brain processes and neurochemicas used during the day.
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Horne Restoration theory
resotration and repair accure during relaxed wakefullness as well as in sleep. Babies and Foetuses sleep N/REM 18hrs on average
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Siegal Restoration theory
( supports)Sleep is more strongly correlated with how immature the baby is at birth
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Oswald Restoration theory
physical repair, synthesis of brai protiens dependednt on groth hormones, which are secreted after 1st burst of delta waves (Slow wave sleep)
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patienst who have had physiological assaults on brain (drug overdose/electroconvulsive therapy)
Increased \REM= synthesis the proteisn that have been used or damaged. Blood flow increases during REM (Nutrients,oxygen&glucose) needed for syntheses
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bloch Restoration theory
rats, maze tasks daily=increased of REM thus learning is related to REM
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AO2 dis
amino acids run out half way, protein synthesis should stop
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Bortz et al Restoration theory
sleep duration of marathon runners after race = decrease in REM but didnt show more slow wave sleep
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Horne et al Restoration theory
p's in physical activities= no increse in sleep although fell asleep faster.
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Carlson Restoration theory
slow wave sleep is important for recovery after vigorous activity.
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Pilleri Restoration theory
Dolpjins evolved unique sleep patterns to overcome drowning. Indus take naps repeatedly for a few seconds
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dis of Pilleri
wake naturally form REM , NRM poor sensory motor functioning
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Brown et al Restoration theory
sleep deprivation reduced working memory efficientcy. 4 days 26mins per night, WM decrease by 38%
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Born et al Restoration theory
link late REM & better procederal memory, early slow-wave sleep and improved declarative memory
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sleep difficulties for more than 1 month. Daytime fatigue
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Dement Insomnia
50% humans acknowledge they have trouble sleeping. 10% diagnosed with Insomnia-not a disorder but symptom of other causes
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Primary Insomnia
most common-no clear psysiological/psychiatric cause due to maladaptive behaviour/learning
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secondary Insomnia
less common-specific cause (disruption of circadian rythm/shift work/medication/ substance abuse/emtional problems
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Psychophysiological Insomnia
anxiety induced- intermittent periods of stress= 2 maladaptive behaviours 1) try hard to sleep 2)befroom related activities (fustration&arousal created)
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Skinner Insomnia
people can fall asleep when they dont want intend to.
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Sleep State misperception
underestimates their sleep time.
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Dement Sleep State misperception
(dis) patient questionnaire each mroning 1-4hrs to fall asleep average 90mins...sleep lab recoridnings he actuaklly never took more than 30mins average of 15mns
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Smith el at Sleep State misperception
neuroimaging of NREM insominics 9 females 5 insomnis 4 control for 3 nights. consistent/sign decrease in blood flow in frontal medial/optical/perieted cortices=abnormal control nervous activity linked to basal gangtia dysfunction
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Dement Sleep State misperception
(Reductionist) different types of insomnias cant generalise
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Ziaspel Sleep State misperception
melatonin effective in small group of elderly patients= considered innaffective in general treatment- percise role of melatonin cans till be clarified (Vande Hevver et al)
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begins in adolescenes/early childhood. 1/2000. some people get mild. triggered by emtional arousal. hallucinations and sleep paralysis.
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malfunctionins in systems that maintain REM
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Vogel Narcolepsy
REM occured at onset of sleep in neurcoleptics explains loss of muscle tone and hallusinations.
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mutation os immune system
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Honda et al Narcolepsy
increased freq of one type of human leukocyte antigen in patients-HLA molecules coordinate the immune rsponse and are found on the surface of white blood cells
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low levels of Orexin
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Lin et al Narcolepsy
narcoleptic dogs- mutanat gene on chromosome 12 which disrupted was orexin was produced
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Lehrnman and Weiss ( Bio approach) Narcolepsy
oneset of sleep disguises sexual fatasies and arousal- coping method to reduce anxiety
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Nishiona et al Narcolepsy
humans have low levels of orexin in CSF unclear what causes it-- not genetic
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Migrot Narcolepsy
no significant increased risk of one twin developing Narcolepsy if the other had it. Could be caused by injury/infection/diet/stree and auto-immune clock
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Sleep Walking
sumnambulism eyes open/ sleep walking wander around bedrooms
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Sleep Walking
most likely to occur during NREM can occur in REM but less likely.. most common in childhood
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Ebrahim and Fenwick Sleep Walking
Other behaviours of sleep waling such as driving cars and ridden horses.
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Horne Sleep Walking
partly geneticc as disorder can run in the family
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Pilon et al Sleep Walking
triggers include fatigue, previous lack of sleep. In adults alcohol and drugs maybe a trigger
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Hublin et al Sleep Walking (supports gentics)
Finnish twins cohort &genetic contribution in !)childhood 66% in men and 57% woman 2) adulthood 80%men 57%woman==sex different not significant but major difference
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Chevin et al Sleep Walking
child somnambulism casual factor maybe other sleep disorder (sleep disordered breathing, restless leg syndrome) which fragment sleeping- confused arousal can explain why it runs in the family.
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Card 2


Scn removed also from hamster.. Supports morgan


Silver et al Endogenous

Card 3


6 males 29 hrs 7/20mins trying to get to sleep. Took blood every 90 mins increase in melatonin


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Card 4


Attention test of naval.. 8,10:30,1,3:30, and 9 most alert at 10:30/9 dip at 1


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Most alert at noon


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