Psychology - Memory

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What is the capacity of the SSTM, the STM & the LTM?
SSTM = Visual information at a given moment; STM = 5-9 chunks; LTM = Unlimited.
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What is the duration of the SSTM, the STM & the LTM?
SSTM = Fractions of a second after the stimulus; STM = 30 seconds; LTM = Few minutes to a lifetime.
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What is the encoding of the SSTM, STM & the LTM?
SSTM = Original form; STM = Acoustic (sound); LTM = Semantic (meaning).
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What evidence supports the Multi-Store Model?
Glanzer & Cunitz (1966) - list of words, one group recalls immediately, other group recalls after 30 seconds - immediate recalled more (start & end).
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What evidence challenges the Multi-Store Model?
Brain-damaged patients (KF study) - Shallice & Warrington (1970) - STM not just one store, has different parts.
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What is the primacy-recency effect?
The words at the beginning go to LTM (rehearsed), & at the end go to STM (heard recently); Words in the middle harder to recall (forgotten).
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What is the Central Executive?
The key component of the WMM, controlling the slave systems.
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What is the Phonological Loop?
The system dealing with sound - articulatory loop (inner voice) & phonological store (inner ear).
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What is the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad?
The system responsible for visual & spatial info - visual cache (form & colour) & inner scribe (space & movement).
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What is the Episodic Buffer?
The extra storage system holding both visual & acoustic info, sending it to the LTM.
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What evidence supports the WMM?
Baddeley & Hitch (1976) - task involving central executive (true/false) & articulatory loop (saying random numbers), performance slower on logic task.
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What evidence challenges the WMM?
Central Executive is too vague - EVR (cerebral tumour removed) - performed well on reasoning tasks but had poor decision-making skills.
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What is episodic LTM?
Personal experiences, including contextual details & emotional tone.
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What is semantic LTM?
General knowledge about the world, which can be concrete (ice = water) or abstract (maths).
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What is procedural LTM?
How to do things, which can become automatic with practice.
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What evidence supports the different types of LTM?
Brain-damaged patients (Clive Wearing & HM) = Procedural & semantic intact, but episodic severely impaired.
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What evidence challenges the different types of LTM?
Problems with evidence from brain-damaged patients - damage doesn't mean that certain areas are responsible for certain types of LTM, may be acting as a relay station.
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What is proactive interference?
Where past learning interferes with new learning.
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What is retroactive interference?
Where new learning interferes with past learning.
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What did Postman & Underwood do?
Gave one group a list of paired words & the other group a list of words that where the 2nd paired word was different.
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What did Postman & Underwood find?
The first group recalled more accurately than the 2nd group - retroactive interference.
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What evidence supports interference?
Danaher et al (2008) - 2 advertisements for competing brands, recall & recognition reduced.
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What evidence challenges interference?
Kane & Engle (2000) - individual differences - people with greater memory span less susceptible to proactive interference.
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What is retrieval failure?
Forgetting due to the absence of cues.
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What are the 3 things affecting retrieval?
Encoding (cues); Context; State.
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What is meant by the encoding specificity principle?
Cues at the learning & recall phases don't have to be identical, but the closer they are, the more retrieval is aided.
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What did Tulving & Pearlstone find?
Participants recalled more in the cued-recall condition than the free-recall condition.
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What did Godden & Baddeley find?
Scuba divers recalled more words in the same environment (on land or under water).
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What did Goodwin et al. find?
Participants recalled more words when they were in the same state as when they learnt the words (drunk or sober).
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What evidence supports retrieval failure?
Smith (1979) - thinking of the room in which original learning took place was as effective as being in the same room at the time of retrieval.
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What evidence challenges retrieval failure?
The absence of cues can't explain all of forgetting - most studies use learning lists of words, not complex learning.
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What is a leading question?
A question suggesting what answer is desired.
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What is misleading information?
Information that may lead someone's memory to be altered, thus reducing the accuracy of recall.
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What did Loftus & Palmer do & find?
Asked leading questions asked about a traffic incident using different verbs; Group exposed to the word 'smashed' estimated a faster speed than the 'contacted' group.
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What evidence supports misleading information?
Innocent people have been found from DNA testing, so EWT should be treated with caution to prevent wrong convictions.
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What evidence challenges misleading information?
Lab experiments may not represent real life experiences - not same emotions as real life.
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What suggests that anxiety has a negative effect of memory?
The weapon-focus effect - presence of a weapon distracts attention from other features, reducing accuracy (e.g. knife vs pen).
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What suggests that anxiety has a positive effect on memory?
Christianson & Hubinette - people who suffered high anxiety from a bank robbery (bankrollers) recalled better than people who experienced low anxiety (bystanders).
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What is the Yerkes-Dodson effect?
Moderate arousal enhances memory performance, but when arousal is too high/low, accuracy is reduced.
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What evidence supports anxiety on EWT?
Christianson & Hubinette's study was a study of a real life crime - more accurate than lab studies.
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What evidence challenges anxiety on EWT?
There is no simple conclusion to whether anxiety has positive/negative effects on memory; Catastrophe theory suggests the decline in performance is due to increased mental anxiety.
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Briefly describe the 4 components of the cognitive interview.
Mental reinstatement (recreate environment); Report everything (no matter how insignificant); Change order (reverse pathway of events); Change perspective (imagine how events would've appeared to others).
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What evidence supports the cognitive interview?
Meta-analysis shows it's effectiveness, compared to standard police interview (Kohnken et al - 81% increase in recall).
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What evidence challenges the cognitive interview?
Takes long to conduct than a standard interview, as special training & strategies are required.
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Card 2

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What is the duration of the SSTM, the STM & the LTM?

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SSTM = Fractions of a second after the stimulus; STM = 30 seconds; LTM = Few minutes to a lifetime.

Card 3

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What is the encoding of the SSTM, STM & the LTM?

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Card 4

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What evidence supports the Multi-Store Model?

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Card 5

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What evidence challenges the Multi-Store Model?

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