psychology key terms extra

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Structured observation
A research method in which an observer records a specified range of behaviours in pre-decided and pre-defined categories
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Unstructured observation
A research method in which an observer records a non-specified, wide range of behaviours including any that seem relevant
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Controlled observation
A research method in which behaviours seen are recorded by the researchers in situations in which there has been some manipulation (e.g. the social or physical environment) by the researchers
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Participant observation
A way of collecting data such that the participants' behaviour is recorded by a researcher who is engaged with them as part of the social setting
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Non-participant observation
A way of collecting data such that the participants' behaviour is recorded by a researcher who is not engaging with them as part of the social setting. The observation may be overt or covert
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Overt observation
Research in which the role of the observer is known to participants
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Covert observation
Research where the participants are unaware that they are being watched. The observer may be participant or non-participant
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Questionnaire
A self report method that uses written questions
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Positive correlation
A relationship between two variables such that an increase in one accompanies an increase in the other
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Negative correlation
A relationship between two variables such that an increase in one accompanies a decrease in the other
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Target population
the total group of individuals from which the sample might be drawn
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Snowball sample
sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances
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Behavioural categories
They are operationally defined units of events used in a structured observation to break a continuous steam of activity into discrete recordable events. They must be observable actions rather than inferred states
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Coding frames
A system for differentiating behaviours to be recorded in an observation, which uses abbreviations to represent behavioural categories and their dimensions(e.g. severity). It may also include the operational definitions of the behavioural categories
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Event sampling
A data collection technique that uses a checklist of possible behaviours, which are recorded as they occur.
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Time sampling
A data collection technique that uses a limited list of behaviours, the behaviours are recorded in relation to short, specified time intervals
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Open questions
Questions that allow participants to give full and and detailed answers in their own words, i.e. no categories or choices are given. They generate qualitative data.
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Closed questions
Questions that offer a small number of explicitly stated alternative responses and no opportunity to expand on answers. They generate quantitative data.
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Nominal data
data as totals of named categories such as the number of participants saying 'yes' or 'no'
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Ordinal data
data as points on a scale such as a likert scale or rating scale. It is ranked data. For example spelling rank within a class
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Interval data
data as points on a scale that has equal gaps between the points. For example score on a spelling test
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Primary data
The results of a first-hand investigation; collecting qualitative or quantitative information directly from a sample
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Secondary data
Information that is obtained about the results of an investigation that has already been conducted by another researcher, possibly for a different purpose. This can then be re-used in a new analysis
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Variance
A measure of dispersion that calculates the average difference between each score in the data set and the mean. Bigger values indicate greater dispersion
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Standard deviation
A measure of dispersion that calculates the average difference between each score in the data set and the mean, and represents this in the same units as the mean itself. Bigger values indicate greater dispersion
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Representativeness
The extent to which the subset of a statistical population accurately reflects the members of an entire population
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Generalisability
efers to the extent to which we can apply the findings of our research to the target population we are interested in.
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Internal reliability
It assesses the consistency of results across items within a test
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External reliability
refers to the extent to which a measure varies from one use to another, it always produces the same results in the same situation with the same people
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Inter - observer reliability
The extent to which two observers will produce the same records when they watch the same event
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Researcher/observer bias
The tendency of an observer to record behaviours that they believe should or will occur, or to identify behaviours within the context of their subjective perspective, rather than recording those that actually happened
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Sample
the group of people who take part in the investigation to represent that population in a study
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Card 2

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A research method in which an observer records a non-specified, wide range of behaviours including any that seem relevant

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Unstructured observation

Card 3

Front

A research method in which behaviours seen are recorded by the researchers in situations in which there has been some manipulation (e.g. the social or physical environment) by the researchers

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A way of collecting data such that the participants' behaviour is recorded by a researcher who is engaged with them as part of the social setting

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A way of collecting data such that the participants' behaviour is recorded by a researcher who is not engaging with them as part of the social setting. The observation may be overt or covert

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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