Psychology - Approaches to Psychology - Behaviourism

Classical Conditioning
Learning by association. Occurs when an unconditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus are paired together to create a conditioned response
1 of 16
Operant Conditioning
Learning through reinforcement. A form of learning in which behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences. Includes positive/negative reinforcement and punishment
2 of 16
Positive Reinforcement
Carrying out a certain action/behaviour to receive a reward
3 of 16
Negative Reinforcement
Carrying out a certain action/behaviour to avoid an unpleasant consequence/punishment
4 of 16
Punishment
An unpleasant consequence of a behaviour
5 of 16
What Did BF Skinner Do?
Skinner put rats (sometimes pigeons) in Skinner boxes. Every time a rat activated a lever (pecked a disk for a pigeon) they would receive a food pellet as a reward. Also taught them to perform the same behaviour to avoid punishment (electric shock)
6 of 16
What Did Pavlov Do?
Pavlov carried out a study to show that dogs could be conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell if that sound was repeatedly presented alongside food. Pavlov's dogs learned that the bell was related to food which caused a salivation response
7 of 16
AO3 - Scientific Credibility
Measurement of observable behaviour in controlled lab settings. Behaviourists emphasised the importance of scientific processes like objectivity/replication. This brought the language/methods of natural sciences into psychology - credibility/status
8 of 16
AO3 - Real-Life Application
Token economy - tokens exchanged for privileges (operant conditioning). Used in prisons and psychiatric wards. These treatments are suitable for patients who lack 'insight' into their condition and aren't capable of talking about their problems
9 of 16
AO3 - Portrays a Mechanistic View
Animals/humans are seen as passive responders to environment. Little conscious insight into behaviour. SLT/cognitive approach have put emphasis on mental events that occur during learning. Mediating between stimulus/response - active role in learning
10 of 16
AO3 - A Form of Environmental Determinism
Sees all behaviour as determined by passed experiences. Ignored free will. Skinner - 'free will is an illusion'. We think we made a decision - our past conditioned the outcome. Ignores influence of conscious decision-making on behaviour
11 of 16
AO3 - Animal Research has Ethical and Practical Issues
Critics have drawn attention to the ethical issues involved. The animals were exposed to stressful and aversive conditions which could affect how they reacted to the experimental condition. Validity of study questioned because behaviour wasn't normal
12 of 16
What behaviour was the behaviourist approach only concerned in studying?
Behaviour that can be observed and measured. The approach wasn't concerned with studying mental processes of the mind
13 of 16
Why Was Introspection Rejected by Behaviourists?
Introspection was rejected by behaviourists as its concepts were vague and difficult to measure
14 of 16
What is the Behaviourist Approach?
A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning
15 of 16
What is Reinforcement?
A consequence of behaviour that increased the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated. Can be positive or negative
16 of 16

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Learning through reinforcement. A form of learning in which behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences. Includes positive/negative reinforcement and punishment

Back

Operant Conditioning

Card 3

Front

Carrying out a certain action/behaviour to receive a reward

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Carrying out a certain action/behaviour to avoid an unpleasant consequence/punishment

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An unpleasant consequence of a behaviour

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Approaches resources »