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Agnosia
Difficulty recognising an object
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Two types of Agnosia (Lissauer)
Apperceptive: problem with percept. Associative: Normal percept- unable to map to stored knowledge
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Apperceptive Agnosia processess (Humphreys and Riddoch)
Shape/Feature coding, Figure ground segmentation, Mapping to stored structural descriptions
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Associative Agnosia processess (Humphreys and Riddoch)
Stored structural knowledge, Semantic knowledge
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Shape/Feature coding (Agnosia)
Unable to copy pictures or match basic shapes.
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Figure ground segmentation (Agnosia)
CAN discriminate between shapes but attributes wrong features to wrong shapes when overlapping
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Mapping to stored structural descriptions (Agnosia)
Cannot mentally rotate objects so can't recognise from unusual view
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Stored structural knowledge (Agnosia)
Percept of the object but cannot name it, match words to images or rank in order of real life size, when presented visually
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Semantic knowledge (Agnosia)
Can't access semantic knowledge through any modality
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Marr's theory of vision (Agnosia)
Stage 2 (2D sketch) maps well with line diffentitation
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Alien Hand Syndrome
Hand acts of own free will. Usually the left.
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Damage in AHS
Medial frontal lobe and corpus callosum
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Case studies (AHS)
Tug of war, buttons, choking, grabbing nearby objects, eating hard
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Symptoms (AHS)
Unresponsiveness, uncontrolled actions, subjective reaction to hand
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Explanation (AHS)
Supplementary motor area plans complex movements. Movement must be suppressed by the ipsilateral hemisphere. In AHS, no suppression occurs.
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Apraxia
Inability to carry out skilled actions.
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Cause (Apraxia)
Left hemisphere damage
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Steinthal (Apraxia)
Defined Apraxia but also included symptoms of Agnosia
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Patient MT (Apraxia)
Unable to imitate simple hand positions and pantomimes with right hand
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Pick's case study (Apraxia)
Patient lighting a candle. 1st attempt held match with both hands and did nothing. 2nd attempt ground match into candle. 3rd attempt when match was lit for him, lit the candle and put it in his mouth.
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Patient MJC (Apraxia)
Difficulty in pantomiming but better when cues were present
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Types of Apraxia
Limb Kinetic, Conceptual, Ideational, Verbal motor dissociation, tactile, ideomotor
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Limb Kinetic Apraxia
Basic motor coordination issues. Difficulties in hand and finger dexterity. Damage to motor cortex.
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Conceptual Apraxia
Loss of knowledge of how to use an object but no loss of motor function
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Ideational Apraxia
Difficulty in executing correct sequence
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Verbal motor dissociation Apraxia
Failure to respond to verbal commands to make movement
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Tactile Apraxia
Unable to use hands as a 'sense organ'
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Idemotor Apraxia
Inability to pantomime, imitate, or use tools. Movements spatially incorrect or slow. Can sometimes do actions automatically. Caused by damage to the link between parietal and pre motor cortex.
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TOLA (Apraxia)
Test for Ideomotor Apraxia- 20 gestures- transitive, intransitive, primal and distal.
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Disconnection hypothesis (Apraxia)
Damage to motor tract connecting parietal area. Left parental core stores motor representations of an action (engram) but if this is damaged, motor performance is affected. If the engram is still intact, the task can be done automatically.
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Dichotic listening task (Attention)
PPS able to report attended message better
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Dichotic listening task with shadowing
Poor information processing in unattended message.
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Broadbent (Attention)
PPS detected physical features of unattended message but not other features. Physical aspects are helpful at separating the message.
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Broadbent's filter theory
Input to sensory buffer to filter to LCP. Stimuli wait at sensory buffer to be processed.
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Late Selection theory (Attention)
All stimuli processed fully and selection determined at LCP.
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Treisman (Attention)
Filter isn't all or nothing- information in the unattended channel is reduced.
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Johnston and Heinz (Attention)
Flexible theory- selection occurs at different stages depending on difficulty.
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Lavie (Attention)
Perceptual load theory- selection depends on perceptual load
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Apperceptive: problem with percept. Associative: Normal percept- unable to map to stored knowledge

Back

Two types of Agnosia (Lissauer)

Card 3

Front

Shape/Feature coding, Figure ground segmentation, Mapping to stored structural descriptions

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Stored structural knowledge, Semantic knowledge

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Unable to copy pictures or match basic shapes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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