Political Parties USA

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What are the main arguments for the Party Decline thesis?
Nomination, communication, fundraising, campaigning and mobilisation
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What is the nomination argument for the Party Decline theory?
The nomination is now carried out by the public not the party
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How is the nomination now carried out by the public and not the party?
Through primaries
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Give an example of a primary?
The Iowa primary 2016 where Ted Cruz won
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Give a counter argument against the nomination argument for the party decline thesis
That the party can use caucuses and super or unpledged delegates to influence the elections
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Give an example of somebody who has done well in the nomination stage against the wishes of the public
Ron Paul
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Give evidence that Ron Paul isn't popular within his party
He wasn't invited to the Republican debates
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What do primaries lead to decline?
Party unity as they cannot work in a collegiate manner to select a candidate
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What is the fundraising argument for the Party Decline theory?
That the majority of fundraising money no longer comes from the party it comes from individual donations, likewise donations go to the candidate not the party
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How much did Obama raise from small donations in 2008?
$750m
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How much money has Bernie Sanders raised in individual donations up to now? (Feb 2016)
$90m
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How has the rise of communication led to the decline of parties?
The growing role of the media has lead to the decline of party influence
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How much did Obama spend on ads in the media?
$288 million
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How many ads did Obama buy?
504,623
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What percentage of Obama's money for ads was spent on negative ads?
82%
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What is mobilisation?
Urging people to get out and vote
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Give examples of celebrities taking part in videos urging people to vote
Jennifer Aniston, Toby Maguire and Michelle Obama
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Of what political alliance were these celebrities?
Democrats
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What are the arguments for the party renewal thesis?
Super and unpledged delegates, legal rulings, pro active leadership, soft money, polarisation and partisanship
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What is the argument of super/unpledged delegates for the party renewal thesis?
They give power to parties in case the nomination does not suit them
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In 2008 how many Democrat delegates were Superdelegates?
800
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What percentage of Democrat delegates are superdelegates?
Roughly 20%
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Give an example of Super/unpledged delegates influencing the nomination result?
In 2000 nearly all unpledged delegates backed Bush helping him beat McCain to the nomination
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What is the legal rulings argument for the party renewal thesis?
That legal rulings over the years have gradually increased the role of political parties
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Give an example of a legal ruling that has strengthened the role of political parties
US Supreme Court vs Cousins of Wigoda 1975 which ruled in favour of national parties over regional parties
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What is pro-active leadership?
Taking initiatives and creating situations not reacting to them
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Give an example of the growth of pro-active leadership
The growing influence of the RNC's and DNC's
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How much did the RNC raise in August 2012?
$35.6 million
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What are the RNC and DNC?
The Republican National Committee and Democrat National Committee
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What is the role of the National Committees?
They act as party leadership creating the party platform
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What is soft money?
Money that isn't regulated, donations that are donated in a way that they cannot be regulated.
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How does soft money contribute to the party renewal thesis?
Because soft money is not regulated by election laws, companies, unions and individuals may give donations in any amount to a political party for the purpose of "party building."
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How much did Microsoft give the Republicans in soft money in 2002?
$1,890,500
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What is an argument against the soft money argument of renewal?
That since the McCain-Feingold act, the role of soft money has declined
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Give evidence for the decline of soft money?
The donations of soft money to the DNC declined by $50m
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At what point did the political parties start to become more polarised?
The 1960s
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What did the pew research centre show between parties?
An 18 point difference
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In 1994 what percentage of Americans held mixed political views?
49%
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In 2014 what percentage of Americans held mixed political views?
39%
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In 2014 what percentage of Republicans saw the Democrats as dangerous to the country's welfare?
36%
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What does polarization show for the renewal thesis?
That party politics are still alive and kicking
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What issues have the two parties been divided on?
Planned parenthood, the Economic Stimulus package and Obamacare
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What is partisanship?
Loyalty to your party
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Where is partisanship most prominent?
In Congress
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What does partisanship mean for the party renewal thesis?
That politicians are becoming more loyal to their parties and thus parties are still alive and kicking
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Give an example of partisanship in the House?
There was no support for Obamacare from any House Republicans
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Give an example of a partisan politician
John Kerry has a 97% voting record of voting in line with his party
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What was the party structure like in the initial parties of the USA?
Formed umbrella groups
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What is an umbrella group?
A group that claims to represent lots of different opinions
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Which was originally the party of the North?
The Republicans
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What began to develop in the parties in the 1970s?
Strong partisanship and links to ideologies
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Name two presidents that encouraged conservatism in the Republican Party
Nixon and Reagan
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Since 1789 how many people have served in Congress?
12,171
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How many Republicans are there in the House?
247
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How many Democrats are there in the House?
193
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Are there independents in the House of Representatives?
Not currently
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How many Republicans are there in the Senate?
54
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How many Democrats are there in the Senate?
44
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How many independents are there in the Senate?
2
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Who do the current independents in the Senate caucus with?
The Democrats
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Since 1987 what has the average point difference been between parties according to the Pew Research Centre?
10
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What is the 2012 point difference between parties?
18
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Which is the more liberal party?
The Democrats
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Which party supports welfare provision?
The Democrats
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Give an example of how the Democrats support welfare provision
Obamacare and My Brother's Keeper
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What does Obamacare provide?
More affordable health insurance, improved healthcare, regulating health insurance companies and reducing healthcare spending in the USA
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What is another name for Obamacare?
The Affordable Care Act
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When was the Affordable Care Act signed?
2010
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What does My Brother's Keeper do?
Offer better opportunities for disadvantaged kids
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Which party is supportive of gun control?
The Democrats
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Give an example of The Democrats supporting gun control
Obama's executive action to make all gun sellers run background checks on buyers
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Which party is more supportive of affirmative action?
The Democrats
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Give an example of The Democrats supporting affirmative action
Obama coming out in support of Fischer vs the University of Texas
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What is the stance of the Democrats on foreign policy?
A dove
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Give an example of the Democrats acting like a dove towards foreign policy
The withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan
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Which party is fiscally conservative?
The Republican Party
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Who opposed the 2009 stimulus package?
The Republicans
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How many Republicans in the House voted in favour of Obamacare
Zero
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How many Republicans supported Ryan's budget
All
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What is an example of a fiscally conservative policy?
Paul Ryan's budget
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What did political parties offer to the originally largely immigrant population?
Something to belong to and a safety net in the absence of a welfare state
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What was the estimated cost of the last mid terms?
$2.6 billion
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How much is it estimated that the 2012 election costed?
$5.8 billion
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Who acted as Obama's campaign manager in both the 2008 and 2012 election?
David Axelrod
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What percentage of undocumented citizens are Mexicans?
57%
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What system of government does the US have?
A federal system
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Is the USA a centralised form of government?
No, decentralised
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In the parties, is the national or state organisation more important?
State based
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Are the state based parties and national parties linked?
No
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Are congressional parties similar to state based parties?
No
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How often do parties exist in national form?
Only once every 4 years
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What is one criticism of congressional parties?
They are often unlikely coalitions of people that would usually have little in common
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Give an example of contrasting personalities within parties
Republicans in New York vs Republicans in Mississippi
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What percentage of African Americans voted for Obama in 2008?
96%
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What percentage of African Americans voted for Obama in 2012?
93%
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What percentage of Latinos voted for Obama in 2008?
71%
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What percentage of Latinos voted for Obama in 2012?
27%
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What percentage of women voted for the Democrats in the 2010 mid terms?
52%
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What percentage of those under the age of 30 voted for the Democrats in the 2010 mid terms?
55%
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What percentage of union members voted for the Democrats in 2010?
6%
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What percentage of those earning under $15,000 voted for Obama in 2008?
73%
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Name some of the minority voters who would vote for the Democrats
Latinos, LGBT, Muslims, African Americans and those earning under $15,000
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Name some of the minorities that may vote for the Republican Party
Latinos
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What fiscal conservatism?
A laissez faire attitude towards business, the desire for less government intervention in business
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What was Herman Cain's 999 plan?
An economic plan of a 9% flat corporate tax, a 9% flat income tax and a new 9% national sales tax whilst eliminating many other major forms of tax in order to treat all businesses the same
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What is social conservatism?
Being conservative over social issues
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Which party is socially conservative?
The Republicans
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Give an example of the Republicans acting in a socially conservative way
Their opposition to planned parenthood and dismissal of John Boehner for not being critical of the organisation, their failure to support Obamacare, their support of DOMA, the opposition to the repeal of 'don't ask don't tell' and anti-immigration
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What percentage of the white vote did Romney get in 2012?
59%
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What are the main voters for the Republican Party?
White men, Latinos, the over 65s, rural voters, businessmen and tea party supporters
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Why would white men vote for the Republican Party?
Because they are anti gun-control, have a hawkish foreign policy and are anti federalist
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What is the Republican Party stance on foreign policy?
Hawkish
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What percentage of over 65s voted for Romney?
59%
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What percentage of over 65s voted for McCain?
53%
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Why would rural voters support the Republican Party?
They are pro gun rights and for looser environmental protection
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Why would businessmen support the Republican Party?
Because they are for low tax and deregulation of business
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Why would Christians support the Republican Party?
Because many of their policies are in line with christian values
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What percentage of Republicans support the Tea Party?
42%
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In 2012 what percentage of the electorate was Latino?
16%
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What percentage of the US population is Hispanic?
17%
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What are two Hispanic Republican presidential candidates 2016?
Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio
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What percentage of voters said they supported the Tea Party in 2012?
29%
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What percentage of voters in 2012 said they strongly supported the Tea Party?
Less than 10%
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What are the different types of minor parties in the USA?
National, ideological, regional, issue-based third parties and temporary parties
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Give examples of national minor parties
Reform Party, Libertarian Party and the Green Party
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Give examples of regional minor parties
States Rights Party and American Independent Party
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Give examples of issues-based third parties
The Green Party and Prohibition Party
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Give examples of ideological minor parties
Socialist Party and Libertarian Party
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Give examples of temporary minor parties
Reform Party and American Independent Party
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What is the Reform Party?
The Reform Party is a moderate, centrist and populist party that sits in the center of the political spectrum. It has moderate fiscal and economic platforms mixed with strong calls for ethics and electoral reform based on populist beliefs.
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Where does the Reform Party sit on the political spectrum?
In the centre
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Where is the Reform Party most active and supported?
In New York
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How many elected officials does the Reform Party have?
Eight
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Does the Reform Party hold any seats in Congress?
No
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How long has the Reform Party been active?
15 years
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Give the name of one famous governor that was a Reform Party member?
Jesse Ventura
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What was Jesse Ventura's former career?
Professional wrestler
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Where was Jesse Ventura governor for?
Minnesota
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Is the Reform Party fiscally conservative?
Yes
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Who is the Reform Party chairman?
David Collinson
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Are the libertarians federalist or anti-federalist?
Anti-federalist
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What is the main aim of the Libertarian Party?
The complete lack of interference by government and the complete freedom of the individual, anti-federalist and pro choice in all aspects of life, government shouldn't intervene in people's choices
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Who is chair of the Libertarian Party?
Nicholas Sarwark
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How many elected offcials are there currently that belong to the Libertarian Party
143
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Give an example of a senator that identifies with the Libertarian Party
Rand Paul
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How many elected officials do the Green Party have?
100
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Where is the most of the Green Party's support centralised?
California
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How many elected officials in California does the Green Party have?
64
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In 2014 what was the Green Party membership?
248,189
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Do the Green Party hold any seats in Congress?
No
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What is the highest position held by a Green Party member?
Mayor of Marina
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Who is mayor of Marina?
Bruce Delgado
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Is the National States' Party still active?
No it was dissolved in 1987
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What was the position of the National States' Party?
Far Right
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What were some of the policies of the National States' Party?
Racism, anti-Semitism and opposition of racial integration
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Who was the chairman of the National States' Party?
J.B Stoner
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What happened to J.B Stoner?
He served three years in prison for bombing Bethel Baptist Church (a headquarters for the civil rights movement)
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What percentage of the national vote did the National States' Party win in 1960?
0.07%
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Which president ended segregation?
Truman
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Who is the chairman of the American Independent Party?
Mark Seidenberg
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What political standing is the American Independence Party?
Far right, heavily religious and constitutionalist
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Who is the AIP's most famous candidate?
Governor George Wallace of Alabama who managed to win 5 states in the 1968 election
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What was the AIP's stance on the civil rights movement?
They were segregationist
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Does the AIP hold any seats in Congress?
No
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What percentage of the vote did George Wallace win?
13.53
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What is the symbol of the Prohibition Party?
A camel
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What political stance is the Prohibition Party?
Far Right
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What does the Prohibition Party oppose?
The consumption and sale of alcohol
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What party is the oldest existing third party?
The Prohibition Party
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Does the Prohibition Party have any current elected officials?
No
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Who is the chairman of the Prohibition Party?
Ricky Knox
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Name a president who the Prohibition Party considered backing due to his prohibitionist stance
Herbert Hoover
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What was the first party to accept women as members?
The Prohibition Party
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How many votes did the Prohibition Party candidate win in the presidential election of 2012?
519
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Who is the Prohibition Party presidential candidate 2016?
James Hedges
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Of what political stance is the Socialist Party?
Far left
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In 2012 what was the membership of the Socialist Party?
1,500
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How many elected officials does the Socialist Party have?
One
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What type of party system is there in the USA?
A two party system
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What does a two party system mean?
That at least 90% of the population votes for one of the two major parties
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What are the seven barriers to the success of minor parties?
FPTP electoral system, ballot requirements, lack of resources, lack of media coverage, suffering from a lack of well known and qualified candidates, straight ticket voting and being perceived as extremists
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What type of a voting system is FPTP?
Majoritarian
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Why would the FPTP system put people off from voting for minor parties?
Because their vote could be seen as wasted
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What is the ballot requirement for New York?
50,000 signatures
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What is the ballot requirement for Tennessee?
500 signatures
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What were the main issues of the 2012 election?
The economy, unemployment, taxes and managing debt
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What was the federal government's debt at the time of the 2012 election?
$15 trillion
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What was Obama judged on from his past presidency in 2012?
The economy and his handling of the second Great Depression
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What did Obama crack down on to help small business owners and consumers?
Made reforms to crack down on Wall Street practices and instituted programmes to help them
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In what way did the economic stimulus package fail?
It failed to significantly drop the high unemployment rate of 9.1%
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How did Obama's campaign team defend the economic stimulus package?
They said that economic recovery would take years to kick in and that is why he needed to be re-elected
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In what areas did Romney have experience?
The public and private sectors
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What was Romney's approach to curbing federal deficit?
The cut, cap and balance approach
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Who else championed the cut cap and balance approach?
Tea party activists and conservative lawmakers in Congress
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Name some swing states
Wisconsin, North Carolina, Virginia, Florida, New Hampshire, Nevada, Iowa, Ohio and Colorado
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Where did Obama spend his last day of campaigning in the 2012 election?
Wisconsin
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Where did Romney spend his last day of campaigning in the 2012?
Pennsylvania
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What type of negative strategies did both candidates use in the 2012 election?
Attack strategies
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Give an example of an attack strategy used by Romney?
A web video accusing Obama of engineering classified leaks and for claiming undue credit for the death of Bin Laden
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What aspect of Romney did the Obama campaign attack?
His successful business career, capitalism and lack of use of American workforce
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What is medicare?
A federal care program for seniors
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Who was Romney's VP candidate?
Paul Ryan
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What was the weakness of Paul Ryan in the 2012 election?
His plan to partially privatize medicare
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What is federalism?
A decentralised form of government
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If the government is centralised, how centralised is the party system?
Very
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If government is less centralised, how centralised is the party system?
Not very
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Are US political parties centralised or decentralised?
Decentralised
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Where are US parties principally based?
In states
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What is the only form of national organisation for the two major parties?
The national committees
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Name the two national committees of the major parties
The Republican National Committee and the Democrat National Committee
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Who is the head of the RNC and the DNC?
Party chairmen
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What is the role of the party chairman in the DNC and the RNC?
They act as a spokesperson for the national party, especially in the media and is responsible for the day to day running of the party
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How often do the RNC and DNC meet in full session?
Twice a year
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Are the RNC and DNC permanent?
Yes
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What is the main meeting of the party on a national level?
National Party Convention
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How often does the National Party Convention occur?
Once every four years
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Give examples of congressional committees specifically for the two individual major parties
Senate Democratic Policy Committee, National Republican Senatorial Committee and Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee
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What does GOP stand for?
Grand Old Party
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What party is often referred to as the GOP?
Republican
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Name in order of most important to least important, the organisation of parties at state or local level
State Party Convention, State Party Committee, County Committees, District Committees, City Committees, Ward Committees and Precinct Committees
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If the party is the party in power, who could be said to be the party leader?
The president
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Give an example showing the state party's power in elections
The Republican's nomination for the open Senate seat in Delaware 2010. The national party's preferred candidate was Mike Castle, a moderate congressman, but he lost in the primary to Christine O'Donnell, a Tea Party backed conservative
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What is liberalism?
A view that seeks to change the status quo in favour of the well being, rights and liberties of the individual
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What is conservatism?
A view that seeks to maintain the status quo and opposes changes
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What was the solid south?
Voters in the South who voted solidly for the Democrat Party after the Civil War
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What was the traditional party of the North?
The Republicans
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What was the traditional party of the South?
The Democrats
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What was the slogan in the South that developed after the Civil War ended with regards to voting?
Vote as you shot
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Throughout what period did a breakdown in the Solid South occur?
1960-1990
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In 1960 what was the make up of the House from members in the South?
99 Democrats and only 7 Republicans
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How many Senators were there from the South in 1960?
22
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How many Senators from the South were Democrat in 1960?
22
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How many State Governors were from the South in 1960?
11
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How many State Governors from the South were Democrats in 1960?
11
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By 1992 what had happened to the make up of Southern Congress?
The Democrats still had a majority but it was much reduced
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What was the outcome of the breakdown of the Solid South?
Widened the differences between parties, cause the parties to become more ideologically cohesive and increase partisanship in Congress
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Roughly what percentage of the popular vote did both parties win in the 2000 election?
49%
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What was the electoral college split in 2000 between parties?
271-267
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What was the make up of Senate in 2000?
50-50
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What was the make up of the House of Representatives in 2000?
221-212
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What factors have been blamed for the surge in partisanship?
The shift of Southern conservative Democrats to the Republicans, the end of the Cold War consensus in foreign policy following the demise of the Soviet Union, polarising presidencies and the effect of new media
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Give some examples of polarising presidencies
Clinton, George W Bush and Obama
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Since 1856, how many presidents have belonged to either the Democrats or the Republicans?
All
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In every presidential election since 1916, what has the combined vote for the two major parties been?
Over 80%
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In how many presidential elections out of the past 26 has the combined vote for the two major parties exceeded 90%?
22
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What was the combined vote for the two major parties in 1984 and 1988?
99%
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How many Senators in the Senate belong to the two major parties?
98
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Who are the two Senators in the Senate who do not belong to one of the two major parties?
Angus King and Bernie Sanders
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How many members of the House of Representatives belong to one of the two major parties?
All
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Out of the 50 state governors, how many of them belong to one of the two major parties?
49
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Who is the only state governor who doesn't belong to one of the two major parties?
Lincoln Chafee of Rhode Island who is a former Republican Senator
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What are the two main reasons why the USA has a two party system?
The first past the post electoral system and all encompassing nature of the parties ideologies
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What are the arguments against America having a two party system?
A 50 party system where every state has a one party system and that the USA has a no party system due to a decline in parties
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What party dominates Massachusetts?
The Democrats
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How many elections in Massachusetts have the Republicans won in 50 years?
One
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Who was the Republican president who won in Massachusetts?
Reagan
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How many votes did Reagan win by in Massachusetts?
3000 out of 2 and 1/2 million
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Which party dominates in Wyoming?
The Republicans
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How many elections have the Republicans lost in Wyoming in the last 50 years?
One in 1964
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Who published the book 'The Party's Over'?
David Broder
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What theory does the book The Party's Over put forward?
The party decline theory
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What was the traditional way in which presidential candidates would communicate with voters?
Party rallies led by party leaders
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How do voters now talk back to candidates?
Through media and opinion polls
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How many presidents in the 20th century have belonged to the Democrat or Republican Party?
All
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When and where were super delegates introduced?
At the Democrat Party Convention in 1984
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In 2008, what percentage of delegates were super delegates?
20%
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What party has super delegates?
Democrats
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What party has unpledged delegates?
Republicans
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Give an example of super delegates playing a role in elections
Super delegates played a large role in the choice of Obama over Clinton
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When was the Contract with America launched?
1994 mid-terms
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What party introduced the Contract with America?
Republicans
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What was the Contract with America?
A document that wrote what the Republicans would do if they were made the majority party in Congress, like a party mandate
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Who wrote the Contract with America?
Newt Gingrich
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What was the Democrats national party agenda in the 2006 elections?
Six for 06
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What was six for 06?
A six point programme of what the Democrats wanted and would do if they won the election
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What document did the Republicans publish in 2010?
The pledge to America
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What was the pledge to America?
A document listing the policies they would bring in 11-12 if they became the majority party in either house
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What happened to Clinton in 1998 to early 1999?
He was on trial for impeachment
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What main issues during the presidency of George W Bush caused partisanship?
Iraq, stem cell research and the state children's health insurance programme (S-CHIP)
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What do American minor parties lack?
National permanence that regularly wins over 5% of the vote
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What happened to Ross Perot's Reform Party?
It disintegrated in 2000
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What years did the Reform Party have success?
1992 and 1996
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In the 2008 election, who was the most successful minor party candidate?
Ralph Nader
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How much of the popular vote did Ralph Nader win in 2008?
0.32%
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Who was the last minor party candidate to win over 5% of the popular vote?
Ross Perot in 1996
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Who was the last minor party candidate to win any electoral college votes?
George Wallace
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How many electoral college votes did George Wallace win in 1968?
46
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What percentage of the vote did Ross Perot win in 1992?
19%
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How many electoral college votes did Ross Perot win in 1992?
Zero
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What type of minor parties fare better?
Regional
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How do major party candidates qualify for 'matching funds'?
By raising at least $5,000 in contributions of $250 or less in at least 20 states
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How do minor parties qualify for 'matching funds'?
By winning over 5% of the electorate in the last election
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Could Ross Perot qualify for matching funds in 1992?
No but he could in 1996 and 2000 after his success in 1992
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How many signatures does Tennessee require for the ballot requirement?
25
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How many signatures does Montana require for the ballot?
5% of all registered voters
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If a minor party candidate is doing well, what do many major party candidates do?
Steal their discussion topics
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Give an example of major party candidates stealing the discussion topics of minor party candidates
George H W Bush and Clinton talking about the federal budget deficit after Ross Perot's success with this topic
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When and how was the tea party born?
In 2009 when it led opposition to the economic stimulus package
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What does tea stand for?
Taxed Enough Already
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What type of organisation is the tea party?
A movement
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What other bodies belong to the tea party?
Tea party nation, tea party patriots, tea party express and freedomworks
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What are the core beliefs of the tea party?
Adherence to the constitution, limited government, reducing the size and scope of federal government, reducing government spending and taxation and reducing national debt and federal budget deficit
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What party does the tea party influence?
Republicans
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What effect has the tea party had on the Republican Party?
It has made it more conservative
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When were the first elections with the influence of the tea party?
2010 mid-terms
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Give examples of tea party influence in elections
In 2010 the preferred tea party candidates were secured in the Republican senatorial primaries in Alaska, Delaware, Florida, Kentucky, Nevada and Colorado and in Utah, tea party activists denied incumbent Bob Bennett from appearing on the ballot
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Give examples of tea party failure in elections
In November 2010 tea party candidates lost in Alaska, Delaware, Nevada and Colorado which deprived the Republicans of a majority in the January Senate of 2011, their candidates were also unsuccessful in the presidential primaries of 2012
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Who is a current presidential candidate preferred by the tea party?
Ted Cruz
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What has the influence of the tea party caucus been?
In the House of Representatives it has been responsible for pushing the House Republicans agenda to the right and making compromise with the Democrats hard for speaker Boehner
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the nomination argument for the Party Decline theory?

Back

The nomination is now carried out by the public not the party

Card 3

Front

How is the nomination now carried out by the public and not the party?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example of a primary?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give a counter argument against the nomination argument for the party decline thesis

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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