Plate Tectonics Case Studies

Mount Etna

Soufriere Hills - Monserrat

Yellowstone

2011 Japanese Tsunami

Boxing Day Tsunami

Kobe Earthquake

Haiti Earthquake

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What is Mount Etna in relation to the rest of Europe's volcanoes?
The highest and most active volcano in Europe
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Where is Mount Etna located?
Sicily
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What percentage of the population live on Mount Etna's slopes?
25%
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Why is Mount Etna the main source of income for the country?
Agriculture (rich soils) and tourism
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How has the frequency of eruptions at Mount Etna changed?
Before 2001, Mount Etna erupted once every 1.7 years. Since 2001, it has been more active as there have been eruption every year except 2007.
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What does Mount Etna produce?
Lava, pyroclastic flows, ash falls and mudflows
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Why are lava flows a threat?
They do not immediately threaten human life, but can cover large areas and destroy crops & buildings
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When was Operation Volcano Buster launched on Mount Etna? Who launched it?
1992; US marines worked with Italian vulcanologists.
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Mount Etna: What did Operation Volcano Buster try to do? Was it successful?
Used explosives to blast a hole in the lava tunnel and then dropped large concrete clocks into the hole to try to stem the flow of lava; Unsuccessful.
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Mount Etna: Fill in the gaps. An earth barrier ___m long and ___m high was constructed around the town of __________. It lasted for around _______ and overflowed on ____________ 1992.
234m; 21m; Zafferana; a month; 9 April
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Mount Etna: Would an earth barrier be sustainable in a LEDC?
No
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When was the final intervention? What did they do? Was it successful?
May 27th; Artificial channel was dug and a protective wall blasted open; Partially, 2/3 of the lava flowed into the channel
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Give 2 impacts of the Mount Etna eruptions.
Over 1,000 years there have been 77 deaths, mineral rich lava creates fertile soil, 1,950 cases of thyroid cancer were detected in Sicily between 2002-4.
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What is the population of Monserrat?
5,000 - 18,000 before eruption
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What is the literacy rate in Monserrat?
97%
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What is the area of Monserrat?
102 square km
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What are the key industries in Monserrat?
Tourism, rum, textiles, electronics
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What country is Monserrat linked to?
UK
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What happened in the Monserrat 1995 eruption? Give 2 facts.
July 18; Southern half of the island had to be evacuated, over 2/3 of the population left for nearby island or the UK where the government offered temporary living, main city (Plymouth) was destroyed - inc. airport, Plymouth covered in 40ft of mud
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What happened in the Monserrat 1997 eruption? Give 2 facts.
June 25; 19 people died, pyroclastic flows reached 1000 degrees (C) and 120km/h, debris shattered into zone marked 'safe', new delta created when dome inside the volcano collapsed later that year
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How are the Monserrat volcanoes monitored? What do they use?
Several monitoring stations powered by solar panels with continuous flows of data via radio. Use of: seismometers, GPS (to detect bulging) and gas spectrometers to detect sulphur dioxide patterns. This is combined into a single graph.
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How are eruptions at Monserrat predicted?
Difficult to predict due to magma composition, use of historic data and graphs showing current status
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Give an impact of the Monserrat eruptions on health.
Worsening of respiratory diseases, silicosis and post traumatic stress disorder
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Give an impact of the Monserrat eruptions on agriculture.
Land adjacent to volcano useless and inaccessible. Used to be self-sufficient for food.
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Give an impact of the Monserrat eruptions on Tourism.
Visitors offput
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Give an impact of the Monserrat eruptions on the environment.
1/3 of the island's tropical rainforest was destroyed.
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Give an impact of the Monserrat eruptions on the economy.
Destruction of the capital, Plymouth.
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Where is Yellowstone supervolcano located?
Yellowstone National Park, North-West Wyoming, USA
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What is Yellowstone supervolcano situated over?
A hotspot
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How wide is the Yellowstone supervolcano caldera?
40 miles
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How many eruptions have there been at Yellowstone? What does their timing suggest?
3, the last was 640,000 years ago - we are due another one soon
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Give 2 factors that prove Yellowstone's existance.
Rising land due to magma build-up under the surface, Geysers, Earthquakes, Previous Eruptions show a chain of calderas moving over the hotspot
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Give 2 human activities in the area around Yellowstone.
The National Park attracts 3.3million visitors annually, recreation - hikinh, canoeing, camping and boating are popular in the area.
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If Yellowstone were to erupt, how long would it last for and how much ash would be produced?
3 days, 330 square km, most of the US covered in ash
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What percentage of people withing 1000km of Yellowstone would be killed?
90%
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What damage would the ash from a Yellowstone eruption cause? Give 4 facts.
Kill and sicken humans and animals, reduce sunlight, trigger rainfall causing lahars, crush buildings (30cm of ash is enought to do this), contaminate water, kill crops and vegetation, clog machinery e.g. air filters
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How much would the earth cool by if Yellowstone were to erupt?
12 degrees (C)
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What date was the Japanese Tsunami?
11 March 2011
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What was the size magnitude of the earthquake that caused the Japanese Tsunami?
8.9
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Why was there little warning of the Japanese Tsunami?
The epicentre was close to the shore
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Give 3 primary impacts of the Japanese Tsunami.
In Sendai a hotel collapsed and trapped people, in Tokyo 14 fires broke out, Roads were destroyed, over 4 milion homes without power, water supplies were cut off.
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How large was the Japanese Tsunami?
24ft wall of water
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Give 3 secondary impacts of the Japanese Tsunami.
Whilpool sucked boats in, landslides caused by earthquake and water at foot of cliffs, fires, nuclear explosion, temporary drop in oil prices, rebuilding good for construction businesses
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How many died as a result of the Japanese Tsunami?
Over 10,000
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What were the results of the nuclear explosion after the Japanese Tsunami?
200,000 evacuated, 22 were exposed. 12 mile exclusion zone.
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What was the first response to the Japanese Tsunami?
Medical and search & rescue deployed. Sniffer dogs trained to detect live casualties used.
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What was the priority for people after the Japanese Tsunami? How did they fulfil this?
Finding food and fuel; filled up containers with fresh water from standpipes, few shops were open - supermarkets set up in carparks
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Why was Japan's prepardeness for Tsunamis actually a disadvantage?
Sea walls instilled a false sense of security, people discouraged from taking part in drills.
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How is Japan prepared for Tsunamis?
Infrastructure strengthened with steel bracing, marked evacuation routes and drills
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What year was the Boxing Day Tsunami?
2004
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Where did the Boxing Day Tsunami occur?
Indonesia
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What was the magnitude of the earthquake that caused the Boxing Day Tsunami?
9.1
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Where did the earthquake that caused the Boxing Day Tsunami occur? Which plates were involved?
Sundra Trench; Australian Plate subducted under the Burma Plate
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How far offshore was the epicentre of the earthquake that caused the Boxing Day Tsunami?
160km offshore
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How high was the Boxing Day Tsunami wave? How far inland did it reach?
20m, 800m
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What happened in South Africa as a result of the Boxing Day Tsunami?
Freak 1.5m high tide
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Why was there such destruction after the Boxing Day Tsunami?
The was no warning system in place
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How many people died as a result of the Boxing Day Tsunami? How many of these were foreign tourists?
187,000; 9,000
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How many people were missing as a result of the Boxing Day Tsunami?
43,000
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Give 2 other impacts that occured as a result of the Boxing Day Tsunami.
60% of coastal fishing companies' boats and equipment destroyed, contamination of water and farmland, tourism industry affected, destruction of coral reefs, forests and coastal wetlands.
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How much worldwide aid was promised as a result of the Boxing Day Tsunami? Was all of it given?
US$7bn; No
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How much money did the British public donate as a result of the Boxing Day Tsunami?
£330m
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Give 2 responses to the Boxing Day Tsunami.
Provide sanitation and fresh water to contain spread of disease, rapid burial of bodies to prevent disease, World Food Programme helped more than 1.3m people
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As a result of the Boxing Day Tsunami, a warning system was developed. Describe.
Agreed upon in a UN conference in January 2005. Wa supposed to be ready for June 2006 but was late. Consists of 3 deep ocean sensors that relay information to 26 national tsunami information centres.
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Where is Kobe located?
Japan
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What date did the Kobe earthquake occur on?
17 January 1995
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What time was the Kobe earthquake and how long did it last for?
5.46am, 20 seconds
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What was the magnitude of the Kobe earthquake?
7.2
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What is the population of Kobe?
10 million
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How many people died in the Kobe earthquake?
5,000
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How many people were made homeless as a result of the Kobe earthquake?
300,000
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How much damage was caused by the Kobe earthquake? (cost)
£100bn
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Give a primary effect of the Kobe earthquake.
Collapse of buildings, bridges and roads
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Give 2 secondary effects of the Kobe earthquake.
Fires triggered by broken gas pipes, congestion and chaos on roads, closure of businesses, homelessness
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How did homes cope in the Kobe earthquake? What was the difference between wooden and modern buildings?
7,500 wooden homes were destroyed, modern buildings generally did well
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Why did the the Kobe earthquake cause so many problems for families?
Most people were not covered by insurance as it is difficult to get in the area (for obvious reasons)
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What happened to the Hanshin Expressway as a result of the Kobe earthquake?
Several sections collapsed or toppled sideways - completely closed
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Give 1 immediate response to the Kobe earthquake.
Emergency shelter in schools, town halls, parks etc. Food, blankets, medical supplies and clean water were initially in short supply.
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Give 3 long-term responses to the Kobe earthquake.
Water, electricity, gas and telephone fully woking by July, railway back in August, new laws to make buildings more earthquake-proof, more monitoring instruments installed
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By January 1999, how many new homes had been built after the Kobe earthquake?
134,000
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What date was the Haiti earthquake?
12 January 2010
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What time was the Haiti earthquake?
4.53pm
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What was the magniture of the Haiti earthquake?
7
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Where was the epicentre of the Haiti earthquake in relation to the capital?
25km west of the capital
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What was the death toll of the Haiti earthquake?
220,000
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How many people were injured in the Haiti earthquake?
300,000
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How many people were made homeless as a result of the Haiti earthquake?
1.3m
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Give 2 primary effects of the Haiti earthquake.
Several hospitals collapsed, transportation and communication badly damaged, main prison destroyed - 4,000 inmates escaped, 250,000 homes damaged or destroyed
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Give 2 secondary effects of the Haiti earthquake.
1 in 5 lost their jobs, hospitals and morgues full - bodies piled on streets, damaged airport made receiving aid difficult, people crammed in shanty towns
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How did the neighbouring Dominican Republic help after the Haiti earthquake?
Gave emergency water and medical supplies as well as heavy machinery
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Give 2 responses to the Haiti earthquake.
Foreign rescue teams, satellite images used to assist aid, charity from abroad, temporary schools created
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What was the 'Cash for Work' scheme? How did it help the Haiti earthquake response?
Paid Haitians to move rubble
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What was the downside of the influx of NGOs to help with the Haiti earthquake relief?
Poor co-ordination and language barriers
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When did cholera start as a result of the Haiti earthquake? How many people were infected? How many died?
October 2010; 648,000; 6,000
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Card 2

Front

Where is Mount Etna located?

Back

Sicily

Card 3

Front

What percentage of the population live on Mount Etna's slopes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why is Mount Etna the main source of income for the country?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How has the frequency of eruptions at Mount Etna changed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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