Pitt to Peel 1783 - 1846

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  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 03-04-18 16:02
What dates did George III rule?
1760 - 1820.
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What did George III rule as?
A constitutional monarch.
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Define: Constitutional Monarch
They had to choose a government that had enough support in parliament to pass laws and carry on day-to-day government. The king was also bound by the law.
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Which influential MP did the king choose?
He chose the Prime Minister who was the head of the 'ministry' or government.
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What exists instead of having a constitution in Britain?
Individual laws relating, for instance, to how long parliament should sit and conventions or generally agreed ideas of how it should function.
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Describe the difference between the two houses of parliament.
The House of Commons was elected and the House of Lords was, in 1783, made up of hereditary peers and the bishops of the Church of England.
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Describe the similarities with the House of Commons in 1783 and today.
There was a Speaker who acted as a chairman, laws were passed by similar procedures and government ministers faced opposition MPs like today.
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How were MPs elected?
They were elected for counties which sent 2 MPs to the House of Commons, or for boroughs which also sent 2 MPs.
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What is a borough?
An urban area.
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What was the voting system like in boroughs?
The right to vote varied and there were 2 types - rotten and pocket boroughs.
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Define: pocket borough
They had small electorates or were virtually the property of influential men who could control the small number of voters and ensue they voted for their chosen candidate.
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Define: rotten borough
They were areas that had declined and were little more than villages e.g. Old Sarum which was uninhabited.
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What was the total number of voters in the country in 1783?
Less than 11,000.
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Did the House of Lords have equal weight in passing laws?
Yes.
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Could prime ministers be a member of the Lords?
Yes.
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What did the fact that there were no 'life peers' mean?
The hereditary aristocracy had a great deal of influence.
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Why did many members of the House of Commons come under the influence of aristocratic families?
Because they had family links to these aristocratic families.
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What was the population of England and Wales in 1783?
7.5 million.
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How was the population split?
1 million lived in London, the rest lived in the countryside or in small or medium-sized towns.
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What was the largely rural society dominated by?
Aristocrats, who owned huge estates, and held many key positions in the state and the armed forces. Landowners also dominated local government.
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Why had Liverpool and Bristol seen flourishing trade?
They were ports which were made wealthy through the slave trade.
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What were well-established businesses on the verge of?
A major expansion in the industrial expansion.
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What were the landed classes happy to do?
To invest in trade, support the expansion of colonies and the development of industries.
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What did the middle class often do and what did this lead to?
Bought land and there was a social mobility not common in other parts of Europe.
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What 2 political groups had emerged in the late 17th century?
The Tories who favoured the king (named after Irish bandits) and the Whigs who favoured controlling the power of the crown(named after poor Scottish farmers).
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Who was the dominant party for most of the 18th century?
The Whigs.
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Why did George III have to accept Whig prime ministers?
Because they had majorities in the House of Commons.
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What important overseas territories had Britain established by 1783?
Britain had defeated France to establish control over much of India and America.
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What made Britain the world's greatest trading power?
They had a powerful Royal Navy and its extensive merchant shipping made it this.
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What happened in 1776?
The British colonists in North America bang a rebellion and Britain was defeated in 1783. The orignal 13 colonies became independent.
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What did Britain hold still in 1783?
Canada.
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Which country was considered the main national enemy?
France.
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What gave Britain international influence?
Its naval power, empire and commercial wealth.
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What religion dominated Britain?
Protestant.
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What was the official religion?
The Church of England.
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Who were 'dissenters' or nonconformists?
Other Protestant groups like Baptists, Methodists, Quakers and Unitarians.
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Where was the main Catholic population?
In Ireland, but it was firmly controlled by by a dominant Protestant ruling class.
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Name 2 restrictions placed on Catholics.
They couldn't be Members of Parliament and there could not be a Catholic monarch.
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What were nonconformists excluded from?
Taking official positions and attending Oxford or Cambridge as they required an oath of loyalty to the Church of England.
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What did many dissenters find an outlet in?
Business and some became great names in trade and industry.
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What did George III rule as?

Back

A constitutional monarch.

Card 3

Front

Define: Constitutional Monarch

Back

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Card 4

Front

Which influential MP did the king choose?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What exists instead of having a constitution in Britain?

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