Physical keywords

The angular distance north or south from the equator
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The angular distance east or west from the equator
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Natural Hazard
A physical process that has rhe potential to have social impact
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Atmospheric Hazard
Created in the atmosphere by the movement of the air and water e.g. hurricane, heat wave, hailstorm
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Tectonic Hazard
Involve movement of the earths tectonic plates e.g. tsunami, volcanic eruption or earthquake
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Bioloical Hazard
Involves living organisms e.g. forest fire or heat wave
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Geomophological Hazard
A hazard relating to the form or surface features of the earth e.g. earthquake or landslide
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Dense hot rock at the centre of the earth
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A layer of rock between the core and the crust made of molten rock
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The outermost layer of the earth
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Tectonic plate
A rigid segment of the earths crust which floats on the heavier, semi-molten rock bellow
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Constructive margin
Where tectonic plates move apart
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Conservatice margin
Where tectonic plates move side by side
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Destructive margin
Where tectonic plates move towards each other
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A vent through which lava, rock fragments, hot vapour, and gas are or have been erupted from the earths crust
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The upper layer of the earths mantle, below the lithosphere
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Convection current
Circular movements of heat in the mantle; generated by radioactive decay in the core
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Plate margin
The place where tectonic plates meet and the earth is particularly unstable
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Primary effects
The immediate damage caused by a tectonic hazard
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Secondary effects
The unforseen consequences of a tectonic hazard
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Areas of low atmospheric pressure where air is rising, which produce cloudy, rainy and windy weather
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Area of high atmospheric pressure where the air is sinking which brings warm settled weather
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A line on a map connecting points having the same atmospheric pressure at a given time or on average over a given period
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Climate change
A long-term change in the earths climate, especially a change due to an increase in the average atmosphere temperature
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The action of reducing the severity, seriousness or painfulnesss of something
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Responds to the impact of climate change and tries to make populations less vunerable
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The wearing away and removal of material by a moving force, such as a breaking wave
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Hydraulic action
The force of the river against the banks can cause air to be trapped in cracks and crevices. The pressure weakens the banks and grandually wears away
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Erosion caused when rocks and boulders transported by waves bump into eachother and break up into smaller peices
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The wearing away of cliffs by sediment flung by breaking waves
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Soluble particles are dissolved into the river
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Vertical erosion
Downward erosion of a river bed
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Lateral erosion
Sideways erosion by a river on the outside of a meander channel
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The movement of eroded material
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The rolling of boulders and pebbles along the river bed
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Fine solid material held in the water while the water is moving
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Particals bouncing down the riverbed
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Where the river begins
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Imaginary area of highland
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Where two tributaries join
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Where the river enters the sea
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What the river flows in
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A small river joining the main river
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Catchment area
An area drained by the river
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Long profile
A slice through a river from source to mouth
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Cross section
A slice across the river
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Interlocking spurs
A series of ridges projecting out on alternating sides of a valley and around which a river winds it course
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Surface runoff
Wter flows over the ground as euther the surface is impermeable or already saturated
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Ground water flow
After water has infiltrated it flows along the bed rock, underground
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When water cools and it collects together to form clouds
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Where moisture is released from plants, heated and rises upwards
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Where water is heated by the sun, turns to vapor and rises upwards
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When water percolates down through the top layer of soil
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Rain,snow,sleet or hail that falls from the atmosphere
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Base flow
Is the very slow flow of water that moves into channel even when it is not raining
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Storm flow
Is the discharge both from the surface and underground water attributed to a single flood event
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Peak discharge
The maximum discharge
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Falling limb
Shows the return of discharge to normal/base flow on a hydrograph
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Rising limb
Shows the increase in discharge on a hydrograph
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Peak precipitaion
The maximum rainfall
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Lag time
The time taken between peak rainfall and peak discharge
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Rocky opening through a headland formed by wave erosion
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When a material is small and is carried in the water
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Hollow at the bottom of the cliff eroded by waves
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Constructive wave
Gently breaking wave with a strong swash and weak backwash
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Hydraulic power
Erosion of rocks by the power of water
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Ridge of sand and shingle across the entrance to a bay or river mouth
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Ridge of sand or shingle attached to the land, but ending in open sea
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Sloping area of sand and shingle between the high and low water marks
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Wave-cut platform
Gently sloping surface of rock, in front of cliffs, exposed at low tide
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Steep rock outcrop along the coast
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Pillar of rock surrounded by sea, separated from the coastline
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Destructive wave
Powerful wave with weak swash and strong backwash
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The breaking of rocks by the action of the weather, chemicals or plants
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A dip or hollow in the foreshore zone where water gets trapped
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The first steep section of a beach near the back where the gradient changes
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Wave formed slope/bank created due to erosion/deposition
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Wiggly lines created by waves as the tides go out
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Back of the beach - not touched even when high tide of water
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Inter-tidal zone, the area between high and low tide
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Where the waves break at low tide-sea always covers it
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Sand dunes
Piles of sand at the back of the beach, secures by marram grass
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Tidal range
Area between high and low tide
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Dune slack
These are depressions in the landscape where the water table is near the surface. This forms small pools of water
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Embryo dune
The youngest dune and first stage in a sand dunes plant sccession
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Grey dunes
These are fixed, stable sand dunes located 50-100m from the edge of the sea. They have grasses and lichens which gives the dune its grey colour
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A sequence of vegetation species colonising an environment over time
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Fore dune
This is the second stage of the dune sequence. These are older and slightly higher. Here marram grass begins to dominate
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The establishment of a new species into a habitat
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Pioneer plant
The first plant species to colonise an area that is well adapted to living in a harsh environment
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Hold the line
Maintain the existing coastline by building defences
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Advance the line
Build new defences seaward of the existing defences
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Managed retreat
Allow the land to flood and construct a new line of defences landward of the existing coastline
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Do nothing
Allow natural processes to shape the land
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A community of living organisms sharing an environment
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A very large ecosystem
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Organisms which can make their own energy from carbon dioxide and water using sunlight for energy
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Species that eat both plants and animals as their primary food source
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Primary consumer
Organisms which eat producers
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Secondary consumer
Organisms that eat primary consumers
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Tertiary consumer
Organisms that eat secondary consumers
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Woody creepers rooted to the ground bur carried by trees into the canopy where they have leaves and flowers
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Buttress roots
Massive ridges to help support the base of the tall trees and help transport water. May also help O2/CO2 exchange by increasing surface area
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Leaves with flexible bases
Flexibility in their base helps leaves trun to face the sun
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Thin smooth bark
Allows water to flow down the trees easily and stops other plants from growing on the trees surface
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Plants which live on trunks and branches of other plants, allows them to make the most of the sunlight in the canopy layer
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Fast growing trees out compete other trees to reach sunlight
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Drip tip
Allow the heavy rain to drip off the leaf. This prevents algae growing which could block sunlight and stop photosynthesis
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When humans remove or clear large areas of forest lands and related ecosystems for non-forest use
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Selective logging
The cutting out of trees that are mature or inferior to encourage the growth of the remaining trees in the forest or wood
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Mineral extraction
The removal of solid material resorces from the earth
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Commercial farming
Farming to sell produce for profit to retailers or food processing companies
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Subsistence farming
A type of agriculture producing food and materials for the benefit only of the farmer and their family
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The business of cutting down trees and transporting the logs to sawmills
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Soil erosion
Removal of topsoil faster than it can be replaced, ue to natural, animal and human activity
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We use natural materials such as timber in such a way that means they are used and managed sustainably
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When the environment is untouched and humans do not interfere so that natural ecosystems can find their own balance
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


The angular distance east or west from the equator



Card 3


A physical process that has rhe potential to have social impact


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Created in the atmosphere by the movement of the air and water e.g. hurricane, heat wave, hailstorm


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Involve movement of the earths tectonic plates e.g. tsunami, volcanic eruption or earthquake


Preview of the back of card 5
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