Coast keywords

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  • Created by: amyling
  • Created on: 14-02-17 11:52
Arch
wave eroded passage through a small headland
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attrition
erosion caused when rocks and boulders transported by waves bump into each other and break into small pieces
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beach nourishment
the natural addition of material to a beach, usually through longshore drift or artifically
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constructive waves
found on low-angled beaches and mainly responsible for coastal deposition. gentle breaking, stronger swash, weak backwash
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abrasion
wearing away of cliffs by sediment flung at breaking waves
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destructive waves
found on steep beaches mainly responsible for cosatal erosion. Strong backwash, weak swash
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fetch
maximum distance of water over which winds can blow,
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gabions
steel wire mesh filled with boulders, used in coastal defences.
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groynes
wooden barrior built out to sea to stop longshore drift and allowing the beach to grow
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hard engineering
building artificial structures to control the natural process of the sea
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hydraulic action
the process by which breaking waves compress pockets of air in cracks in a cliff. the pressure causes the crack to widen, breaking off the rock
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longshore drift
waves approaching the coast at angle and leaving at a right angle resulting in gradual zig-zag movement of sediment along the coast
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managed retreat
allowing cliff erosion to occur as natural
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mass movement
the downhill movement of weathered material due to gravity. the speed varies; soil creep- barely noticeable movement to mud flows- rapid
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pioneer species
first plant to colonise an area that is well adapted to the harsh environment
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revetements
wooden, steel or concrete fence like structures that allow water and sediment to pass through, but the structures aborb wave energy, a beach builds up behind revetment providing further Cliff protection
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rock armour
large stones placed along the coast to dissipate the energy of the waves and stop coastal erosion
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rockfall
the collapse of the cliff face
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rotatonal slip
slippage of a cliff face along along a curved surface causing he cliff to eventually retreat
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SMP
Shorline Management Plan - each local authority should have one that outlines the strategies for their stretch of the coastlien
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Salt marsh
low lying coastal wetland
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sediment starvation
an area of a beach where sediment has been held back (by groynes) and as result the beach downdrift loses sand and rocks become exposed as marine processes are allowed to reach the cliffs
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slumpimg
mass movement of materail from a cliff face as gravity takes over- often caused by being saturated from heavy constant rain
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soft engineering
a sustainable approach t managing the coastline without artificial structures
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solution
the dissolving of rocks such as limestone or chalk in water. also used as the transportation of dissolved chemicals
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spi
a long narrow accumulation of sand and shing from longshore drift and deposited when the coastline abruptly changes direction. one end is connected to the land and the other projects out to sea
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stack
wavs erode rock left standing out at sea after wave erosion has seperated it from the mainland. its the next stage from an arch. waves continue to erode the foot of the arch until its roof becomes to heavy to be supported
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stump
formed by continuing wave action attacking a stack until it collapses
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sub ariel erosion
weathering from above, eg. rain
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swash
forward movement of a wave up a beach
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sustainable coastal management
a management approach that conserves the environment for future generations to enjoy as it is today
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undercutting
marine processes acting on cliffs and eroding between high and low water marks to the extent that eventually the material on the cliff face collapses because it oes not have support at the base
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updrift
areas that provide a supply of material for deposition by longshore drift further along the coast
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vegetation succession
a sequence of vegetation species colonising an environment
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wave cut plat from
a gently sloping, rocky platform found at the foot of an eroding cliff and exposed at low tide
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weathering
the break down of rock by physical or chemical processes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

erosion caused when rocks and boulders transported by waves bump into each other and break into small pieces

Back

attrition

Card 3

Front

the natural addition of material to a beach, usually through longshore drift or artifically

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

found on low-angled beaches and mainly responsible for coastal deposition. gentle breaking, stronger swash, weak backwash

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

wearing away of cliffs by sediment flung at breaking waves

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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