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  • Created by: deieso
  • Created on: 13-05-15 19:21
Diffusion
The movement of gaseous from one area to another. This will invariably move from an area with high concentration to an area of low concentration.
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Partial pressure
The pressure exerted by a gas within a mixture of gasses.
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Pressure gradient
The relative differences between the pressure within two adjacent areas.
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Myoglobin
Combines with oxygen then released by red blood cells to the mitochondria of muscle cells where it is used to produce energy (blood to muscles).
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Mitochondria
Energy factories of muscle cells. Where aerobic energy is released.
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Glycogen
A form of glucose that is stored as energy in the muscle.
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Cappillarisation
Where the blood vessels surrounding a muscle fibre increase in number.
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Lactic acid
Produced when glucose is broken down to produce energy (during more intense exercise).
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Creatine phosphate (CP)
Chemical compound that gives muscle initial burst of energy when they contract.
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Adaptation
Long term/ permanent change
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Response
Short term/ tempory
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Synovial fluids
A fluid released to prevent friction at the articular cartilage of synovial joints during movement.
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Vascular shunting
The body directs blood to where it is needed by constricting and dilating blood vessels.
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VO2 max
A measure of the maximum amount of oxygen that can be taken in and used per minute per kilogram of body weight.
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Haemoglobin
A protein which picks up oxygen and then combines. They bine with each other as they have high affinity (likes each other). When 4 oxygen molecules combine, it cannot combine any more.
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Fitness
The ability to meet the demands of the sporting environment without undue fatigue.
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Health
A state of complete physical, social, mental well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
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Exercise
A form of physical to help improve fitness and health.
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What are the 7 Nutrients?
Fats, carbohydrates, protein, minerals, fibre, vitamins and water
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Carbohydrates
High intensity fuel source which aids the utilisation of fats as an energy source. A good source is fruit, pasta, wheat, cereals and chocolate.
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Fats
Low intensity energy. Used for insulation. Found in fish, animal and dairy products.
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Proteins
Required for growth and repair. Acts as a 'last resort' energy source. Proteins are made from amino acids. Found in foods such as meats, soya and dairy products.
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Vitamins
Required to facilitate physiological functions. Found in animal and dairy products, fruits, vegetables and grains.
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Minerals
Aid vitamin absorption. Provide the structure for bones and teeth, and are essential in many bodily functions. Found in vegetables, fruits, fish and nuts.
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Fibre
Essential for healthy bowl function. Found in plant foods, fruit, vegetables, beans and oats.
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Water
Major component of the body. Involved in almost every bodily function, but main role are thermoregulation and transport. Found in fruits and water as a drink.
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Hydration
A physiological state of optimum water balance.
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Diet
Refers to what you eat and drink, in short what you consume.
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Appetite
A psychological response, a result of the sight, smell or thought of food- also due to a number of actors such as: boredom, anxiety, grieving, celebrating or the time of the day.
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Hunger
A physiological factor or response. Our stomach is desinged to digest food every 4-5 hours. This is because of its size and ability to empty itself when full. Once emptied a message of hunger is sent to the brain.
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Dehydration
Refers to a state where the body does not have optimal water balance- can be expressed as the loss of certain percentage of body weight.
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Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
The rate at which the body uses energy for maintenance activity.
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Energy balance
When the calories you take in are equal to the calories expended.
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Resting metabolic rate (RMR)
Energy expended to maintain the body during resting conditions.
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What lowers BMR?
Age (after peak maturation, early 30's), fasting/ starvation, hormones and sleep.
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What increases BMR?
Eating frequently, exercise, muscle mass, age (up to peak maturation, mid 20's), height, pregnancy and smoking/ caffeine.
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Calcium
Needed for bone and tooth formation, heart function and blood coagulation, muscle contraction. Found in dark vegetables, sesame seeds, oats, almonds, sunflower seeds, sardines/salmon.
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Magnesium
Needed for healthy muscle tone and healthy bones and heart. A natural tranquilliser. Found in nuts, soy-beans, green vegetables, figs, apples, lemons, peaches, almonds and salmon.
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Potassium
Important in keeping acid-alkaline balance in the blood. Essential for muscle contraction and normal heart beat. Found in green vegetables, oranges, whole grains, sunflower seeds, bananas and fresh salmon.
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Vitamin D
Helps body absorb calcium and phosphorus, needed for bone growth and maintenance. Found in fish-liver oils, sprouted seeds, mushrooms and sunflower seeds.
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Vitamin E
Helps form red blood cells; prevents oxidation damage. Found in seeds, nuts and grains, green vegetables and olive oil.
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Vitamin B2
Helps release energy from foods. Essential for healthy eyes, skin, nails and hair. Found in whole grains, brewer's yeast, wheat germ, almonds and sunflower seeds.
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Vitamin B3
Needed for nervous and digestive system functions, essential for proteins and carbohydrate metabolism. Found in brewer's yeast wheat germ , rice bran, nuts, sunflower seeds, brown rice, green vegetables.
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Speed
The time taken to move a body, part or whole, through a movement over a pre-determined distance.
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Co-ordination
The ability of the body to link movements together, either with other movements or in relation to an external object.
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Power
strength x speed
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Reaction time
The time taken from the presentation of the stimulus to the execution of the necessary subsequent action.
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Agility
Changing direction quickly and with control.
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Static stretching
Maintaining control of movements. The muscle is taken to the current elastic limit and held in position.
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Ballistic stretching
Uses the momentum of a moving body or a limb in an attempt to force it beyond its normal range of motion.
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Active stretching
When you assume a position and then hold it there with no assistance other than using the strength of your muscles.
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Passive stretching
Where you assume a position and hold it with some other part of your body or with the assistance of a partner or some other apparatus.
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What are the principles of training?
Frequency, intensity, time, type, recovery, specificity, individuals needs, overload, reversibility, variance and over training.
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Why are principles of training put in place?
The rules that are applied to the methods of training in order to achieve the specific adaptation required to improve performance.
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Validty
Whether the test is measuring the component of fitness its set out to measure/ relevant to the sport.
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Reliability
Whether the test can be repeated in the exact same conditions to the previous.
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Protocol
The instructions needed to be taken out to do the fitness test correctly.
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Continuous training
Physical raining that involved activity without rest intervals. Performed at a constant intensity and done for an extended period of time. It is usually low to medium intensity being aerobic natured.
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Circuit training
A method of physical conditioning in which one moves form one exercise to another, usually in a series of different stations or pieces of equipment. It is very adaptable and can suit specific athlete or goals.
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Interval training
Physical training consisting of alternating periods of high and low intensity activities. Based around a W:R ratio and is repeated. It is adaptable and sport specific.
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Weight training
Physical training which involves lifting weights. Works against a variable resistance for a determined number of repetitions and sets. Can target muscles and muscle groups and specific fitness benefits.
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Musculo-skeletal respsonses
Increased fibre recruitment depended on intensity, increased force production depended on fibres recruited, increased production of synovial fluids, increased metabolism due to increased localised muscle temperature.
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Muscular adaptations
Increase in type 1 characteristics, increase in myoglobin content, increase in mitochondrial size/ density, muscular hypertrophy, potential store greater levels of muscles glycogen, greater contractile force.
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Skeletal adaptations
Increase in bone density/strength, increase in ligament and tendon strength/elasticity, increase in production of synovial fluid, increased thickness of hyaline cartilage, calcium deposits at point of stress.
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Respiratory responses
Increased rate and depth of breathing, increased rate of gaseous exhange (increased intake of 02 and removal of CO2)
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Respiratory adaptions
Improvement in respiratory muscle performance, strengthened muscles involved in breathing, increased surface area of alveoli, only small increases in lung volumes.
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Cardio-vascular responses
Vascular shunting to improve blood distribution, increased heart rate, increased stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (Q).
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Cardio-vascular adaptations
Vascularisation/ capillarisation of the heart, cardiac hypertrophy, increased end diastolic volume, bradycardia/ lower RHR, increased strength of cardiac contractions, decreased end systolic volume, increased Q/ SV & increased blood flow.
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Neuro-muscular responses
Increased speed of nerve impulses faster reactions, increased ability to recruit more fibres.
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Neuro-muscular adaptations
Training enables the athlete to control he type and rate of motor unit recruitment, increase in force production due to motor units recruited, rate/speed of force production and fibre recruitment.
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Type 1 slow twitch fibres
A type of muscle fibre characterise by a relatively slow contraction, making it suitable for low power & long duration aerobic activities. Best suited to endurance long distance athletes & related training methods are continuous, interval & fartlek.
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Type 1 slow twitch firbe adaptations
>number of myoglobin, >density of mitochondria,>in muscle glycogen stores, capillarisation within muscles, more efficient in aerobic conditions/ resistance to fatigue.
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Type 11a fast oxidative glycotic (FOG) fibres
Have a higher oxidatvie capacity than type 11b and are often associated with short high intensity endurance events such as 400/800m or games players. Related training methods being interval, fartlek, speed, circuit, weight.
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Type 11a fast oxidative glycotic (FOG) fibre adaptations
>number of myoglobin, >density of mitochondria, >in muslces glycogen stores, >tolerance of lactic acid, capillarisation within muscles, more efficient in speed endurance conditions, muscle fibre hypertrophy.
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Type 11b fast twitch fibres
Have the highest level of phospocreatine giving the highest glycolytic capacity and are associated with explosive, maximal intensity events such as 100m and shot putt. Training methods related are short interval, speed, circuit, weight & plyometrics.
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Type 11b fast twitch fibres adaptations
>stores creatine phospate, >tolerance of lactic acid, larger muscle bulk, greater % of type 11B fibres as a result of type 11a fibres developing similar characteristics, more efficient in anaerobic conditions.
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Bradycarida
A resting heart rate below 60 beats per minute.
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Hypoxic
A state where not enough oxygen is reaching the tissues.
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Creatine phospate (CP)
Energy rich chemical compound that is used by the body to create explosive energy.
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Respiration
The act of creating energy aerobically.
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Ventilation
The act of breathing.
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Foundation level
Grass-roots level associated with introducing young children to sport and encouraging fundamental motor skills.
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Participation level
Sports for fun and enjoyment with basic levels of competence.
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Competition level
Structured form of competition at club/county level.
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Elite level
Performers at the highest national and international levels.
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Youth sport trust
Responsible for all sport and activity that involved young people in and out of school.
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Sport England
An agency whose primary role is to sustain and increase participation in community sport. It is government's key delivery partner and a lottery distributor for sport.
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UK sport
Responsible for management of elite sport in the UK to lead to world class success.
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World class performance programme
The lottery funded elite sports support programme for athletes in the UK.
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World class pathway
UK sports programme to identify talent and support elite athletes (talent, development, podium).
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Sports relay race
The pathway of development from the YST to sport England and UK sport.
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PESSCL
Physical education, school sport and club links. A joint initiative between government departments and the YST to enhance take up of sport amongst 5-16 year olds.
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SSCO
School sport co-ordinators who are based in secondary schools their role is to improve opportunities in sport for their pupils in both curricular and extra curricular sport.
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PLT's
Primary link teachers based in primary schools with aims of improving quality of PE within their school.
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PDM
Partnership development manager acts as a hub for the partnership and links all the SSCO's together.
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Reformative polocies
These are strategies and initiatives put forward to try and encourage people into physical activity.
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Programming
Specific sessions and times in a sports facility provided for a particular target group.
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Consessions
They are for certain target groups, offering cheaper prices and schemes, such as gym rates being cheaper.
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Active places
This is a web page resource that allows people to search for sports facilities in their local area.
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Active people survey
Used to track sport England's targets and are undertaken every 3 years.
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Multi sport hubs
The development of community sports facilities that offer multiple sports and recreation activities as well as brining educational, health and social welfare services under one roof.
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Mass participation
To encourages as many people as possible to take up active lifestyles by breaking down barriers/constraint that prevent participation.
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Lifetime sports
They are sports that can be pursued throughout life. The main emphasis is low energy output and having fun.
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Target groups
Population groups that find it difficult to access sport and recreation.
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Discrimination
Unfair treatment (to an individual or group) which results in their access to sport and recreating being inhibited.
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Requirements for participation
FART (facilities, ability, resources, time), ability, resources, time
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Leisure
A period of time spend out of work and essential domestic activity.
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Recreation
A period of time spent out of work and essential domestic activity.
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Karvonen
A way of calculating a training zone based on exercise intensity related to maximal heart rate.
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Sedentary lifestyle
A lifestyle which is predominately lacking in physical activity.
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Diabetes
The disease in which the body makes little or no insulin. The body in unable to regulate blood sugars.
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Coronary heart disease (CHD)
This is the result of an accumulation of fatty deposits forming plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the heart.
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Obesity
Having a body fat 25% above the gender norm would classify as being clinically obese.
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Blood pressure
The force exerted by your blood within the arteries. High blood pressure is linked to CHD and pressure is highest when your heart beats. This is called systolic pressure.
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Access
A term that covers both opportunity and provision.
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Oppurtunity
Cultural factors may provide a barrier to opportunity for a number of groups in society.
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Provision
The facilities that allow you to participate. There may be discrimination on geographical grounds. Equipment required may also restrict access.
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Stress
Arises when there is an imbalance between the person's perception of the demand and their ability to meet that demand.
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Stressors
The events that provoke stress
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Metabolic syndrome
A combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Abdominal obesity is a main risk factor.
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Resources
Essential in order to take part in physical activity. Equipment, people and money.
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Hypokinetic disorders
A disorders that is totally or party attributed to the lack of physical activity.
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Catabolic
Describing the breakdown phase, such as training.
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Anabolic
Describing the build up or recovery phase.
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Lifetime sports
They are sports that can be pursued throughout life. E.g. golf. The main emphasis is low energy output, can be self paced and having fun.
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The 4 sport England participation segments
Coach potatoes, on the subs bench, mild enthusiasts and sporty types.
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Coach potatoes
Those who do not participate and do not want too and have a negative attitude to sport.
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On the subs bench
Those who do not currently participate, but could be persuaded if it was made easy enough.
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Mild enthusiasts
Those who participate in sport but could do more.
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Sporty types
Those who participate in sport and keen to continue.
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Stereotypes
A widely held series of characteristics and traits about individuals or certain groups in society. They reinforce established perceptions.
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Pre industrial society
The period of time before the industrial revolution, in the second half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century.
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Post industrial society
Period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufactuing and the transportation has a major effect on the socio economic and cultural conditions in Britain.
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Popular recreation
Activities and past times undertaken by the majority of the population (ie. the peasant class) in pre industrial Britain.
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Patron
A member of the gentry who looked after a lower class pedestrian. He would arrange the competition, put up the money and generally look after the performer.
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Codification
The creation of rules for the conduct of a sport. It encompasses both the scoring system and rules.
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Rationalisation
Sport with set rules and a national organisation.
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Urbanisation
Large populations moving into the cities and towns where there was a lack of pace for recreation.
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Industrialisation
Led to a life based around the factory system and machine time. Holy days were largely lost and work was no longer around the seasons, meaning a busy week for individuals.
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Athleticism
The characteristics that were attributed to the experience of playing competitive sport in nineteenth century public schools. Eg. fair play, leadership and bravery.
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Boycott
Withdrawn from taking part, especially where nations do not allow their athletes to compete at a sports meeting in order to make a political point.
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Commercialisation
The use of sport as a commodity in order to generate income/revenue through other marketing opportunities such as advertising and sponsorship.
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Americanisation
The influence of American culture, norms and customs, in other than American sports, in every aspect of sports around the world. The way that sport is now taking on US sport practises copying the commercial US sports model.
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Doping
Taking drugs in order to enhance sporting performance.
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Sportsmanship
The intention to compete within the framework of the rules and the intended spirit of the rules. Conforming to the written and unwritten rules of sport.
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Gamesmanship
The intention to compete to the limit allowed by the rules and beyond, if that is achievable without penalty. Where you use whatever means you can to overcome an opponent.
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Sponsorship
Payment or money received by an individual, team or competition in return for displaying the name, logo or brand of the sponsoring company.
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Advertisment
Coverage or promotion of a company, product or logo gained by the said company paying to promote their product either on shirts, bill boards, in programmes.
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Endorsement
Is when an athlete or team are paid to use a product or give the impression that a product is good enough for them to use.
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WADA
The world anti-doping agency which is to promote and co-ordinate the fight against doping in sport internationally.
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Reformative policies for women
Sport England- Back to netball a scheme which introduced the sport to 15000 people or this girl can focusing on increasing participation of real women (all age and sizes). Programming- women only gym sessions
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Reformative policies for the disabled
YST- Project ability which leads schools that provide training and clubs. Sport England- Places people play a scheme which is funding to improve disabled sport.
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Reformative policies for elderly people (ageing over 50)
Programming- Over 50 swim sessions. Concessions- OAP reduced priced gym.
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Reformative policies for young people
Programming- Free coaching, only teen sessions. Sport England- Also sportivate being a project accessed by 11-25 year olds to try a new sport for 6-8 weeks for free or subsided. Pesscl/clubs.
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Education pathway
School > regional teams > elite club
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Club pathway
Local junior club > senior club > elite club
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School sports pathway
School > district > county > regional > national team
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Effects of ageing
Loss of muscle mass, cardio vascular endurance decreases (stiffening of blood cells), flexibility wears and tears.
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Pluci crow (pre industrial)
Pre 1800, localised, uncoded, cruel, industrial, coutrly, rural occasional, wager
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Deviance
Any behaviour what is designed to gain an unfair advantage.
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Talent ID
The process of identifying potetntial sports talent in yound people and then providing supportive pathways that allow them to progress and fulfil this talent,
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Closed-loop sports
Repetitive in nature- e.g. rowing, canoeing, cycling, swimming etc. Easier to find clear physical characteristics.
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Open-loop sports
Require constant decision making, response organisation and spatial awareness, as well as physical and technical abilities- eg, tennis and football.
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Tall and talented (talent ID case study)
Main focus is to find potential basketball and rowing athletes through a criteria of being between 15-22, being tall (men over 190cm and women over 180cm), competing in any sport at a minimum of county level and mentally tough/competitive.
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Girls for gold (talent ID case study)
Searched for potential women athletes to compete in cycling, bob skeleton, canoeing, rowing and sailing. They have to be 17-25 competing at county level within their current sport. They need to be fit, powerful and strong.
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Target Tokyo (talent ID case study)
A search for shooters across Britain and identified potential talent to be developed through the EIS.
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TASS
Talent athlete scholarship scheme a goverment funded programme set to target talented yound atheltes. The NGB's wprk with them and the higher education sector to support them.
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East Germany points
Forefront of sport for 40 years, they wanted to be recognised (shop window), screened/tested at age 7 for potential, training for 3 years, sent to boarding schools -2 to 6 hour theory to piratical ration at the age of 10, created many elite athletes.
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Australia points
Bad performance in 1976 Olympics, created an institute of sport, measurements were done in secondary school to identify potential, they were then screened and trained. The 2000 Olympics, the medal amount changed dramatically.
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Long term athlete development (LTAD)
Fundamentals, learning to train, training to train, training to compete, training to win, retirement.
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Early specialisation
Some sports such as gymnastics, swimming, figure skating, etc. require early sport specific specialisation in their training.
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Late specialisation
Sports such as athletics, team sports and rowing require generalised approach to early training. It is suggested that for late specialisation sports specialist training should not commence before the age of 10.
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Fundamentals
Ages 6-8 and works overall motor skills and is fun.
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Learning to train
Boys 9-12, girls 8-11, developing overall sport skills 80:20 participate to competition ratio.
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Training to train
Boys 12-16, girls 11-15, building aerobic base, speed, strength and sport specific skills.
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Training to compete
Males 16-23, females 15-21, optimise fitness and sports specific skills in a competitive situation.
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Training to win
Males 19+, females 18+, working towards podium performance develop technical/tactical skills.
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Retirement and active for life
The end of a performers playing career, maybe going on to play another sport, coaching/officials, stay involved with the sport for instance books, adverts, commentating etc.
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If energy balance is incorrect
Loss of fluids leading to lethargy and de motivation, hold on to essential fat and burn lean muscle, lowers the based metabolic rate.
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How can a athlete be fit but unhealthy or the opposite?
Mental illness (Buffon) or a sumo wrestler being obese.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Partial pressure

Back

The pressure exerted by a gas within a mixture of gasses.

Card 3

Front

Pressure gradient

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Myoglobin

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Mitochondria

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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