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Introduction
The role of the blood transport system:
To move blood to all parts of the body and specifically transporting the oxygen
supplied by the lungs to the muscles so that they can produce the energy they
require for contraction.
The role of blood:
Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Transports other important substances such as glucose, amino acids and
nutrients.
Transports hormones which allow cells to communicate with each other.
Prevents body from infection through clotting to prevent blood loss.…read more

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Components of Blood ­ Transport of Gases
Transport of carbon dioxide:
Blood carries C02 around the body in 3 main ways:
Hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions (70%)
Combines with haemoglobin to form
carbaminohaemoglobin (23%)
Dissolved into the plasma (7%)
Transport of oxygen:
Blood carries and transports 02 in 2 ways:
Carried by haemoglobin found in red blood cell's
and combines to form oxyhaemoglobin (97%)
Dissolved in the blood plasma (3%)
Myoglobin:
An iron based protein similar to haemoglobin. However:
It is only found in skeletal muscles
It transports oxygen throughout the muscle tissues
It has a higher affinity for oxygen than haemoglobin…read more

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Circulation
Vessel Definition
Artery Thick ­ walled blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart
Veins Thin ­ walled blood vessel carrying blood towards the heart
Arterioles Small arteries
Venules Small veins
Capillaries Tiny blood vessels supplying nutrients to cells and removing
waste materials
Every part of the body has a major artery supplying it with oxygenated blood from the heart
The arterioles (branches of smaller arteries) take the blood to the various parts of the body
The capillaries then take the oxygenated blood directly into the muscles for respiration (at the capillary bed)
Once, diffusion at the muscle cells has taken place, the venules at the muscles transport the deoxygenated blood
into the larger veins
The major veins transport the oxygenated blood back to the heart and lungs…read more

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Types of Circulation (Double)
Pulmonary Circulation:
Definition: deoxygenated blood from the heart to
the lungs (where it becomes deoxygenated) and
back to the heart, picking up oxygen.
Main role: oxygenating the blood (that will be
pumped to the body cells by systemic circulation).
Systemic circulation:
Definition: oxygenated blood carried from the heart
to the body tissues and back to the heart.
Main role: carry the blood that will provide the body
cells and tissues with oxygen and nutrients for
respiration.…read more

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Structure of Blood Vessels
Part of blood vessel Description/definition Found in...
Tunica intima/interna Innermost layer of blood vessels, made up of Arteries
endothelial cells. Veins
Tunica media Middle layer of a blood vessel, made up of Arteries
smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. Veins
Tunica adventitia/externa Outermost layer of a blood vessel, mainly Arteries
composed of collagen and elastic fibres Veins
Endothelium Thin layer of cells that lines the interior of a Arteries
blood vessel, made up of endothelial cells Veins
Capillaries (one endothelium layer
thick)
Valves Made from two flaps of elastic tissue, stop Veins
blood backflow…read more

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