PE skills flashcards

Difficulty: Simple skill
Many decisions, learn in stages (slip catch)
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Difficulty: Complex skill
Few judgements/decisions, taught as whole, repetitive (javelin)
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Environment: Open skill
Adapt to environ., perceptual, externally paced (football pass)
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Environment: Closed skill
Stable envrion., habitual, set pattern, beginning + end (basketball free-throw
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Pacing: Self-paced
Performer control rate, proaction, usually closed (javelin)
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Pacing: Externally paced
Envrion. control rate, reaction (badminton serve)
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Muscular involvement: Gross
Large muscular involvement, not precise, fundamental pattern (shot put)
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Muscular involvement: Fine
Intricate, small muscle groups, precise, hand-eye co-ordination (snooker shot)
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Continuity: Discrete
Clear beginning + end, repeat, single, specific (penalty flick in hockey)
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Continuity: Serial
Several discrete elements = integrated movement/sequence of movements (triple jump)
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Continuity: Continuous
No obvious beginning/end, end of one = start of other (cycling)
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Organisation: High
Elements/sub-routines, diff. to seperate (dribbling in basketball)
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Organisation: Low
Easy to seperate (tennis serve)
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Open practice
Variety of situations, different strategies to cope with danger
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Closed practice
Become automatic, constant environ makes varied practice unneccessary
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Low organisation, split-up, complex skills, success initial before progress, dangerous skill, confidence, seperate parts together (serial) - backswing in tennis
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No break down, kinaesthetic sense, transfer skill to situation, components interact closely (golf swing, depends on interaction of diff. skills)
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Attempt skill, practice sub-routines, put together again, serial skills, low organisation, recognise strength + weaknesses, kinaesthetic sense (lay-up shot, basketball)
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Progressive part
Chaining, serial skill broken down, learn one link at a time, mix of part and whole, help to remember links (front crawl, swimming - arm then leg tech.)
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Mass/distributed practice
Very short, no rest / long rests, mentally rehearse,
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Fixed/varied practice
Stable, predictable, same environ. as where you perform, suit to close skills / range of experiences, long term memory, resemble true life
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Situational factors
Increase pos. transfer: realistic practice conditions, consistent response to training stimulus, land drills (sometimes not as lose kinaesthetic xp)
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Identical elements theory
Thorndike and Woodworth, level of transfer = similarities between training + perf. environ, more identical = greater transfer = easier learning
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Learning theory: Operant conditioning
Associationist theory (S-r, connect appro. response), process modifies behaviour (shape + reinforce (partial = better long term)), trial + error (watch parents and follow)
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Learning theory: Thorndike's law - repeat if good
How fully developed S-R bonds are, law of exercise (repeat/rehearse to incr. S-R, floor gymnast), law of effect (response, satisfier = S-R stronger, annoyer = S-R weaker), law of readiness (Physic. + mentally able, hockey penalty flick)
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Learning theory: Cognitive
Whole prac, continually receive info from surroundings and use experience to shape response, think + understand (no trial + error), didatic coaching (if wrong, learn themselves), affect by insight learning + intervening variables
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Relate to cognitive learning, adapt to environment, perceive object as whole rather than parts, help decision making/problem solving
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Learning theory: Social learning (Bandura)
Personality = situation not genes, copy from others habits + attitudes
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Learning theory: Observational learning (see social learning)
1) Attention - watch demo, focus on key areas (trailing leg in hurdles), 2) Retention - remember model, mental picture/rehearse (repeat action), 3) Motor reproduction - physically imitate skill (practice run-up), 4) Motivation - external reinforce
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Stages of Learning: 1) Cognitive
Teacher use models, highlight relev. cues, trial + error, beginner, success = reinforce, fail = valuable exp + understand why (badminton player learn to serve)
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Stages of Learning: 2) Associative
Practise, compare and associate movement with mental image, feedback, learner becomes aware of subtle + complex cues, motor programmes formed (not automatic), vast improve in perf. (badminton, know what's needed, try strategies, detect + correct X's)
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Stages of Learning: 3) Autonomous
Basic performers won't reach, almost automatic (little concious thought), ignore distractions, strategies + tactics, motor programmes in LTM, short reaction time (badminton, confident, consistently accurate, sophisticated strategies)
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Verbal guidance advantages and disadvantages
Feedback can reinforce/identify errors, hold attention (if correct), motivate to learn and develop
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Information overload (distract/confuse), inaccurate so don't develop
Visual guidance advantages and disadvantages
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Create mental picture, see different stages (easier for dev?), encourage observational learning (attention to part. cues)
Demo could be wrong, learn bad habits that hinder development, coach may not give accurate demo, may still be unclear
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Manual guidance advantages and disadvantages
Sense of safety, help confidence, isolate aspect of skill (hold legs for swimmer)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Few judgements/decisions, taught as whole, repetitive (javelin)


Difficulty: Complex skill

Card 3


Adapt to environ., perceptual, externally paced (football pass)


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Stable envrion., habitual, set pattern, beginning + end (basketball free-throw


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Performer control rate, proaction, usually closed (javelin)


Preview of the back of card 5
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