20. Pavana Lachrimae - Sweelinck

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What are the birth and death years of the composer?
Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck was born in approximately 1562, and died in 1621.
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What sort of music did Sweelinck compose?
Vocal music (both sacred and secular), some lute music, and a lot of keyboard music.
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What is important about 3 of the 6 sections of this piece?
They are varied and embellished versions for keyboard music for Sweelinck's contemporary, John Dowland. Each of the others is a variation on one of the ‘arranged’ sections, with much more elaboration.
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How is "Pavana Lachrimae" similar to the music of John Dowland?
3 of 6 sections of "Pavana Lachrimae" are actually varied and embellished versions for keyboard music by Sweelinck's almost exact contemporary, John Dowland.
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Which instrument was this piece probably intended for?
A single manual harpsichord.
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What about the piece reflects the original source?
The limited range of the piece.
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Where does Sweelinck put the borrowed melody?
In the octave above Middle C.
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What is the range of this piece?
Three octaves, from G (bottom line of the bass stave) to G (an octave and a half above middle C). The limited range probably reflects the original score.
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Which texture does most of the piece use?
4 part texture, and is often similar to 4 part vocal writing.
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How many parts are the florid passages often in?
3 parts, for practicality.
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How is additional weight created at certain points in the piece?
A 5th part is added at the beginning and end of some sections.
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Which texture does the melody borrowed from Dowland use?
Homophonic.
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How many sections are there in this piece?
3 (A, B, and C), and each of these is repeated.
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How is repetition used?
Sweelinck provides a varied repeat of each section, rather than being content with straight repetition.
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How does the structure reflect Dowland's influence?
Sweelinck also started his section A with a clearly defined 4 bar phrase.
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How is a balanced phrase structure used?
Based on multiples of 2 and 4 bars, this may underlie the structure, but we can claim nothing more.
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How was Sweelinck connected to the more major-minor key system?
Sweelinck lived before the major-minor key system with its functional harmony, and is not clear exactly *** he and his contemporaries would have described the tonal and harmonic processes of their music.
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What key is this piece thought to be in?
A minor, with some modal Aeolian elements, with use of both G#s (bar 8) and G♮s (bar 6).
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How does the piece use the key it is in?
The music stays very largely in the original minor key, however, there are some tonal contrasts.
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Which musical technique makes the key of the piece more difficult to distinguish?
False relations between G natural and G sharp, for example in bar 96 beat 3.
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Which inversions of chords are used in this piece?
Most chords are in root position or first inversion.
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Which non chord notes are included in the piece?
Passing notes, auxillary notes and occasional suspensions.
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Which cadences are used?
Imperfect and perfect. At the ends of sections, the final chord of the cadence is extended over two bars and is considerably embellished.
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Which Section has three imperfect cadences?
Section A, in bars 3-4, bar 7 beat 3-bar 8, and bars 11-12.
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How is the melody of this piece interesting?
Although instrumental, this piece's melodic writing is frequently vocal in character.
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What makes the melody more effective?
Occasional leaps, for example, the rising minor 6th in bar 2.
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In the melody, what makes the piece different to Dowland's work?
The falling 4th figure is used more in the opening 5 bars than is used by Dowland, intensifying the melancholy mood.
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How can the melody in the top part be described?
The melody in the top part is predominantly conjunct, even in the variation sections, and most florid passages cover quite a small range.
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How can the rhythm of the entire piece be described?
The piece has much rhythmic diversity.
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Which pattern of notes do passages and sections generally start with?
Semibreves, minims, crotchets and a few quavers.
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Which metre does this piece use?
Simple quadruple (4/4)/
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Where do cadential "trills" occur?
In two places, once in bar 30, and once again in bar 45.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What sort of music did Sweelinck compose?

Back

Vocal music (both sacred and secular), some lute music, and a lot of keyboard music.

Card 3

Front

What is important about 3 of the 6 sections of this piece?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is "Pavana Lachrimae" similar to the music of John Dowland?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which instrument was this piece probably intended for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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