paper 1 topic 2 organisation

what is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of similar cells that work together to carry out a specific function
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what is glandular tissue?
It makes and secretes enzymes and hormones
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what is epithelial tissue?
This is tissue that covers some parts of the body such as the gut
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what is an organ?
A group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function
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what is an organ system?
A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
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what is a catalyst?
A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of reaction without being used up or changed
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How do enzymes catalyse reactions?
they have an active site which fits on to a substrate and these are very specific
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what does optimum pH mean
This is the pH at which enzymes catalyse reactions, it is often ph 7 but it can be ph 2 in the stomach
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what causes a protein to denature?
This is when the enzyme is either no longer at its optimum pH or temperature
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how do you calculate the rate of reation?
rate= 1000/time
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how do you calculate the effect of Ph on enzyme activity?
heat water to 35 c, then add amylase and add a buffer, using a timer record how long it takes for amylase to break down starch
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how do you test for starch using amylase?
amylase catalyses the breakdown of starch to maltose and you can detect starch using iodine solution where it will go from orange to blue-black
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what is the size of molecules such as, starch, protein and fat
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what is anabolic reaction
when small molecules are built up to make larger molecules which uses energy
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what is a catabolic reation
when large molecules break down to make smaller molecules and energy
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how do you breakdown large molecules so they can be absorbed into blood
digestive enzymes break them down into amino acids gylcerol and fatty acids
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What do carbohydrases convert carbohydrates into
Simple sugars
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where is amylase found? ( 3 PLACES)
pancreas, small intestine and the salivary glands
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What is starch broken down into
maltose and other sugars
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what do proteases convert proteins into?
Amino acids
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where is protease found?
stomach( pepsin), pancreas and the small intestine
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what do lipases convert lipids into
Glycerol and fatty acids
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where are lipases made
pancreas and small intestine
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what is bile?
it neutralizes the stomach acids and emulsifies fats
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where is bile produced
the liver it is then stored in the gall bladder
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why does bile neutralise the stomach
the hydrochloric acid in the stomach is too acidic for digestive enzymes to work so bile turns the small intestine alkaline
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why does bile emulsify fats
it breaks it down into tiny droplets and this gives a larger surface area for lipase enzymes to work on and this causes digestion to be faster
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why does your stomach have a layer of mucus
to coat your stomach and protect it from being self digested
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what is the digestive system?
The digestive system is a muscular tube that squeezes food thorugh your body for absorption
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what does the small intestine do
this is where soluble food molecules are absorbed into the bod
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what does the large intestine do?
absorb water from undigested food
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what elements do carbohydrates contain?
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
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what are simple sugars
small chains of carbohydrates
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what are complex carbohydrates
long chains of simple sugars bonded together
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what are lipids made up of?
three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule
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what is the test for sugars
benedicts solution and heating for 5 minutes at 75 c will turn the solution green, yellow or brick red
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what is the test for starch
iodine solution will cause the solution to go from orange to blue-black
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what is the test for proteins
biuret solution will go from blue to pink or purple
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what is the test for lipids
ethanol and distilled water will form a milky emulsion
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why do we need oxygen in the blood stream
to supply cells with oxygen for respiration
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where are the lungs
in the thorax
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what parts of lungs carries out gas exchange
the alveoli
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what is a natural pacemaker
They produce small electric impulses which causes the heart muscles to contract
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What is an artificial pacemaker
it is a device that is implanted into the skin that sends impulses to keep the heart beating regularly
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what are the three types of blood vessels
arteries, capillaries and veins
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what are arteries
they carry blood away from the heart at high pressure this means that the walls are strong and thick in comparison to the lumen- oxygenated
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what are capillaries
these exchange materials at tissues. they are really small and have permeable wall which allow for diffusion. they supply food and oxygen and are 1 cell thick this increases rate of diffusion by decreasing distance
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what are veins
they carry blood to the heart at a low pressure so the walls are thin they also have valves- deoxygenated
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what is the job of red blood cells
to carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells
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what is the shape of a red blood cell
bi-concave to increase surface area for diffusion
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why dont red blood cells have nuclei
for more room to carry oxgen
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what is haemoglobin?
the red pigment
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what is oxyhaemoglobin?
In the lungs the oxygen binds to the haemoglobin but in the body cells the opposite happens
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what are the four main components of blood
red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma and platelets
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What is the job of white blood cells?
some produce antibodies and antitoxins and some phagocytose to kill the unwelcome microorganisms
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what are platelets?
they are small fragemnts of cells with no nucleus they help to clot the wound and stop excessive bleeding
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what is plasma?
it carries nutrients like glucose and amino acids, carbon dioxide, urea and hormones
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what are lymphocytes
ball shaped nucleus that secretes antibodies and toxins
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what are phagocytes
tri-lobed nucleus that phagocytose
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what is cardiovascular disease
disease of the heart or blood vessels
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what are stents for
stents are tubes that go inside arteries that keep them open so that blood can pass through to the heart
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why would you need a stent
when layers of fat block the arteries it make it hard for oxygen to flow, leading to a heart attack.
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what are the risks of having a stent?
there is a risk of getting a blood clot near the stent and an infection
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what are statins
statins are drugs that reduce cholesterol in the blood
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what are advantages of statins
advantages include; statins increase good cholesterol, and reduce the risk of strokes
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what are disadvantages of statins?
statins take a long time to work and they can have negative side affects such as headaches and memory loss
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what is health
the state of physical and mental wellbeing
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what are communicable diseases
these are diseases that can be spread from one person to another such as malaria
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what are non-communicable diseases?
these cannot spread and are generally degenerative eg. asthma and cancer
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how do different types of diseases interact?
cancer can be triggered by infections from other viruses, mental health is another factor as well as personal life situation ( easy access to medicine)
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what are some risk factors that increase chance of getting non-communicable diseases?
smoking increases your chances of getting lung cancer, obesity can lead to type two diabetes and drinking too much alcohol can lead to liver disease
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what effect do non-communicable diseases have on the economy?
low-income families may have to adapt their homes and this is costly, some people may also have to give up work to look after someone
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what is cancer?
Cancer is caused by the growth and division of cells which lead to a tumor, not all tumors are malignant, some a benign
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what does benign mean?
is means that the tumour stays in one place and doesnt affect other parts of the body
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what does malignant mean?
this is when the tumour spreads to other healthy cells, these can travel in the bloodstream and form secondary tumours
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what risk factors can increase likelihood of getting cancer?
Smoking, obesity and viral infection- hepatitis b can increase the risk of getting liver cancer also faulty genes can have an impact on this
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what is the double circulatory system?
The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the left ventricle pumps oxgenated blood around the body
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how does the heart pump blood around the body?
the heart has valves and four chambers to pump blood around.
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what do coronary arteries do?
They branch off the aorta and surround the heart making sure that it gets all the oxygenated blood it needs.
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what are the stages of blood being pumped around the heart
1. blood flows into the two atria from the vena cava
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how does the alveoli carry out gas exchange
a large surface area and a short diffusion distance there are also many of them
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what are alveoli
air sacs that help with gas exchange
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what is the order of oxygen from mouth to alveoli
nose -trachea- bronchus-bronchiole- alveoli
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what is an artificial heart for?
they pump blood for a person whos heart has failed, these are only temporary. an advantage is that theyre less likely to be rejected than a donor heart but the bad thing is that artificial hearts can lead to bleeding
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why would you need a new heart valve?
old age and surgery can cause a person to stiffen or become leaky.
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What are the two options for heart valve replacement?
Biological and mechanical
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why is artificial blood helpful?
It allows the body to have time to produce new blood and it allows the remaining blood to pump oxygen around the body.
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what is epidermal tissue?
This covers the whole plant
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what is palisade mesophyll tissue?
this is the part of the leaf where most photosynthesis happens
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what is spongy mesophyll tissue?
This contains big air spaces to allow gases to diffuse in and out of cells
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what is xylem?
it transports water and has lignin which provides structure and supprt o
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what is phloem?
Phloem transports dissolved sugars and water around the plant
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what is meristematic tissue?
This tissue normally occurs in the roots of plants and these can differenciate.
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how do epidermal tissues protect themselves from water loss?
They have waxy cuticles
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why is the palisade layer see through?
to let light pass through to the palisade layer
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why does the palisade layer have chloroplasts?
this means that they are near the top of the leaf so they can absorb light for photosynthesis
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what do the xylem and phloem form in plants
vascular bundles that deliver water and other nutrients. they also support the structure
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how are the tissues of leaves adapted for gas exchanges
the lower epidermis is usually full of stomata
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what is translocation?
Phloem tubes have small pores which transport food in both directions around the plant.
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What is transpiration?
the evaporation of water vapour through the stomata in the leaves which enables a constant flow of water
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what controls transpiration?
the opening and closing of the stomata
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what is the rate of transpiration affected by? (4 things)
light intensity, temperature, air flow and humidity
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what are salivary glands
where amylase is produced
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what does the pancreas do in digestion?
it produce amylase lipase and protease
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how do you measure the rate of transpiration?
you can use a potometer to measure the change in volume of water, ( the tube is a cylinder )
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why is humidity a factor in the rate of transpiration?
the dryer the air around a leaf the faster transpiration happens- diffusion happens best at a steep concentration.
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why does air flow affect the rate of transpiration?
if air flow is strong it means that the water vapour is swept away maintaining a high concentration gradient
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why is light intensity a factor that affects the rate of transpiration
stomata close when it gets darker because photosynthesis does not happen in the dark so it doesnt need to be open to let carbon dioxide in. when the stomata are closed very little water escapes
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how are guard cells adapted to open and close stomata
they have thin outer wall and thin inner walls, when the plant goes turgid the stomata open so gases can be exchanged for photosynthesis, theyre sensitive to light and close at nightto save water.
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Why are there more stomata on the underside of a leaf compared to the tope
the lower surface is cooler so less water is lost
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Card 2


what is glandular tissue?


It makes and secretes enzymes and hormones

Card 3


what is epithelial tissue?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what is an organ?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what is an organ system?


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