Biology B7 Notes Completed + Highlighted (Excess)

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  • Created on: 09-10-13 23:29
Preview of Biology B7 Notes Completed + Highlighted (Excess)

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B7 Notes 1
B7 Further Biology
OCR 21st Century: 2011 specification
Made by Nabilah Chowdhury
References: OCR 21st Century Further Sciences Book, CGP: OCR 21st century + various internet sources
Topic 1: Movement and exercise
Brief intro 11/06/13
Vertebrates have a joint internal skeleton.
Muscles work in an antagonistic pair; when one contracts the other relaxes.
Physiotherapy helps heal injuries.
Nabilah Chowdhury, 11Ra Ms Miah

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B7 Notes 2
BMI calculations allow you to monitor levels of fitness.
The heart is a double pump; it makes to circuits in one beat.
The conditions in the body must be kept constant for cells to function properly.
Poor diet + lack of exercise Diabetes / heart disease / cancer
A correlation doesn't mean that one factor CAUSES another.
Measurement of performance relies on repeatable + accurate data.…read more

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B7 Notes 3
Oily lubricant that reduces friction and nourishes bone tissue aka. Bones
Allows joints to move easier
Synovial membrane
Tissue that secretes synovial fluid
Muscles pull on bones at a joint in order for them to move.
Ligaments = bone to bone
Tendon = bone to muscle
Muscles contract (shorten) for movement.
Tendons are inelastic so they can't stretch much. Instead the tendon pulls on the bone. Thus, the force is
transmitted from the muscle to the bone.…read more

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B7 Notes 4
Baseline data ­ initial measurements.
You can see what you need to do to improve from this measurement.
Heart rate + Blood pressure
Heart rate + Blood pressure increase during exercise.
When not exercising, the HR + BP are at resting levels.
Recovery period ­ time it takes for HR + BP to return to resting levels
Shorter R.P = fitter you are
Data 1D
Assessment of progress depends on accuracy + reliability of procedures.…read more

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B7 Notes 5
Recovery period
Fitter = faster R.P Shorter = shorter R.P
Repeat measurements, use averages, re-calculate slowly improve
Body fat [18 ­ 25 = healthy]
Fatty deposits can narrow your artery which can starve some heart muscle cells of oxygen heart attack
Ensure that you've read the calliper scales properly and that the units are correct.
Your mass will vary according to different times of the day
(e.g. may have just eaten, dehydrated).…read more

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B7 Notes 6
Immobilise the injured area to prevent further damage being done.
E.g. by keeping the weight off a torn muscle
Acts as an anaesthetic, when applied indirectly, to reduce swelling by reducing the temperature and slowing
down the blood flow to the injured area.
A firm bandage is placed around the injured area to reduce swelling and prevent further damage from
excessive movement. It can't be too tight or the blood supply will cut off.…read more

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B7 Notes 7
Torn ligaments and tendons
If a joint twist or overstretches, the ligaments and tendons may tear.
Ligament tears bones unattached = painful and loss of control.
Popping sound = joint is bruised and difficult to bend
Tendon tears muscle is contracting one way and is being pulled the other way.
Can stretch / inflame / snap
Dislocations ­ when bone comes out of its socket.…read more

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B7 Notes 8
The left ventricle muscle is always thicker because the blood needs to be pumped to the whole
9) The blood exchanges the oxygen, nutrients etc with the tissues. The blood has now become
deoxygenated again.
Blood types 2A
Pale yellow liquid that carries materials e.g. nutrients, waste, hormones
It gives blood its bulk. It also distributes heat around the body.
Red blood cells
RBC's ­ transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.…read more

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B7 Notes 9
Memory cells ­ remember how to make the correct antibody for the antigen markers
Produce antibodies that label the antigen markers on the microorganisms
Phagocytes ­ engulf and digest the microorganisms
Platelets ­ clots a wound
1. Damaged blood vessel
2. Platelets stick to the cut edge
3. Platelets send out a chemical that triggers a series of reactions to
form a clot at the wounded site
4.…read more

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B7 Notes 10
They have a smaller lumen. This means that the blood is travelling at high pressure. The blood in arteries
needs to be pumped at high pressure b/c if the blood went directly from the lungs to the body (instead of
entering the left atrium) it would travel too slowly to provide enough oxygen for the body cells.…read more


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