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B7 Notes 1




B7 Further Biology
OCR 21st Century: 2011 specification
Made by Nabilah Chowdhury

Copyrighted

References: OCR 21st Century Further Sciences Book, CGP: OCR 21st century + various internet sources




Topic 1: Movement and exercise
Brief intro 11/06/13

Vertebrates have a joint internal skeleton.
Muscles work in an antagonistic…

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B7 Notes 2

BMI calculations allow you to monitor levels of fitness.

The heart is a double pump; it makes to circuits in one beat.
The conditions in the body must be kept constant for cells to function properly.

Poor diet + lack of exercise Diabetes / heart disease /…

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B7 Notes 3

Oily lubricant that reduces friction and nourishes bone tissue aka. Bones
Allows joints to move easier

Synovial membrane
Tissue that secretes synovial fluid

Muscles
Muscles pull on bones at a joint in order for them to move.

Ligaments = bone to bone
Tendon = bone to muscle…

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B7 Notes 4

Baseline data ­ initial measurements.
You can see what you need to do to improve from this measurement.

Heart rate + Blood pressure

Heart rate + Blood pressure increase during exercise.
When not exercising, the HR + BP are at resting levels.

Recovery period ­ time it…

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B7 Notes 5

Recovery period

Fitter = faster R.P Shorter = shorter R.P

Repeat measurements, use averages, re-calculate slowly improve

Body fat [18 ­ 25 = healthy]
Fatty deposits can narrow your artery which can starve some heart muscle cells of oxygen heart attack

Ensure that you've read the calliper…

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B7 Notes 6

Rest

Immobilise the injured area to prevent further damage being done.
E.g. by keeping the weight off a torn muscle

Ice

Acts as an anaesthetic, when applied indirectly, to reduce swelling by reducing the temperature and slowing
down the blood flow to the injured area.

Compression
A…

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B7 Notes 7



Torn ligaments and tendons
If a joint twist or overstretches, the ligaments and tendons may tear.

Ligament tears bones unattached = painful and loss of control.
Popping sound = joint is bruised and difficult to bend

Tendon tears muscle is contracting one way and is being pulled…

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B7 Notes 8

The left ventricle muscle is always thicker because the blood needs to be pumped to the whole
body
9) The blood exchanges the oxygen, nutrients etc with the tissues. The blood has now become
deoxygenated again.




Blood types 2A
Plasma
Pale yellow liquid that carries materials e.g.…

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B7 Notes 9

Types

Memory cells ­ remember how to make the correct antibody for the antigen markers
Produce antibodies that label the antigen markers on the microorganisms
Phagocytes ­ engulf and digest the microorganisms

Platelets
Platelets ­ clots a wound
E.g.
1. Damaged blood vessel
2. Platelets stick to…

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B7 Notes 10

Arteries

They have a smaller lumen. This means that the blood is travelling at high pressure. The blood in arteries
needs to be pumped at high pressure b/c if the blood went directly from the lungs to the body (instead of
entering the left atrium) it would…

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