Biology B7 Notes Completed + Highlighted (Excess)

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Preview of Biology B7 Notes Completed + Highlighted (Excess)

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B7 Notes 1
B7 Further Biology
OCR 21st Century: 2011 specification
Made by Nabilah Chowdhury
Copyrighted
References: OCR 21st Century Further Sciences Book, CGP: OCR 21st century + various internet
sources
Topic 1: Movement and exercise
Brief intro
11/06/13
Ver
tebr
ates
have
a j
oint
i
nter
nal
skel
eton.
Nabilah Chowdhury, 11Ra
Ms Miah

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Page 2

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B7 Notes 2
Muscl
es
w or
k i
n an
ant
agoni
st
ic
pai
r when
one
cont
ract
s t
he
other
r
elaxes.
Physi
other
apy hel
ps
heal
inj
uri
es.
BMI
calcul
ati
ons
all
ow you
to
mo ni
tor
l
evel
s
of
fi
tness.
The
hear
t
is
a doubl
e pump i
t
ma kes
to
cir
cuit
s i
n one
beat.…read more

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B7 Notes 3
Smoo t
h l
ayer
whi
ch pr
event
s gr
indi
ng
of
bones
I
t
als
o
compresses
when
bones come
too
close
toget
her
=
shock
absor
ber
Synovial fluid
O il
y l
u bri
cant
that
r
educes
fr
ict
i
o n
and
nour
ishes
bone
ti
ssue
aka.…read more

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B7 Notes 4
The
regi
me can
be adj
ust
ed t
o t
ake i
nto
consi
derat
ion
cir
culat
ory
/
respi
rat
ory
probl
ems.
You
w i
l
l
qui
ckl
y pr
ogress
(get
f
it
ter
)
if
your
l
if
est
yle
hist
ory
is
heal
thy
and act
ive.
Circuit training
­ i
nst
ruct
or
var
ies
the
dif
fi
cul
ty
+ no.…read more

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B7 Notes 5
St
renuous
exerci
se heart
beat
s f
orc
e f
ull
y
When t
ense /
angr
y /
st
ressed
Measur
e t
he
BP
w hen
si
tt
ing
down
+ ar
m i
s at
chest
hei
ght
(
rai
si
ng
arms
lower
s BP)
.
Ensur
e t
hat
any
medi
cal
equi
pment
i
sn'
t
damaged.
Recovery period
Fi
tt
er
= f
ast
er
R .
P Shor
ter
=
shor
ter
R.…read more

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B7 Notes 6
Redness and
sw el
li
ng
Brui
si
ng
Di
ff
icul
ty
breat
h i
ng
Ache and
pains
R.I.C.E
R.I
.C.
E i
nvol
ves
reduci
ng
sympt
oms
and
creat
ing
the
ri
ght
condi
ti
ons
to
heal
t
he
inj
ury.
Rest
I
mmobi
li
se t
he i
njur
ed area
to
prevent
f
urt
her
dama ge
bei
ng
done.
E.
g .…read more

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B7 Notes 7
Graded
exer
cis
e s
are
done
step
by
step
in
order
t
o s
teadi
ly
bui
ld
up
the
str
engt
h of
t
he
muscl
e /
j
oint
.
How does physiotherapy work?
Ret
urns j
oint
s +
mu scl
es t
o f
ull
st
rengt
h
Gentl
e exer
cise
heals
ti
ssue so
that
t
hey
don'
t
shr
ink
/
ti
ght
en
too
much.…read more

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B7 Notes 8
Val
ves
­ pr
event
backf
low
of
blood
The
hear
t
2B
1) Vena Cava (vei
n)
carri
es deoxygenated
blood i
nto
the r
ight
atr
ium.…read more

Page 9

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B7 Notes 9
White blood cells
WBC's
­ hel
p t
o f
ight
i
nfect
ions
and
att
acks
fr
om
micr
oor
gani
sms
Types
Memory cells ­ rememb er
how t
o make
the cor
rect
ant
ibody
for
t
he
anti
gen
mar
ker
s
Produce antibodies
that
l
abel
the
anti
gen markers
on
the
microor
gani
sms
Phagocytes ­ engul
f
and di
gest
the
micr
oo r
ganisms
Platelets
Platelets
­ cl
ots
a woun d
E.g.
1.…read more

Page 10

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B7 Notes 10
BP i
s l
ower
in
veins
than
in
art
eri
es b/
c t
he l
ume n i
s bi
gger
so
the
blood
doesn'
t
tr
ave l
at
such
a hi
gh
speed.
Thi
s i
s b/
c we
don't
want
to
ri
sk
a ny
fl
uids
for
cing
it
was
out
int
o t
he
air
w ays.
(
Th e
lungs
are
next
t
o t
he heart
).…read more

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