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B7 Notes 1




B7 Further Biology
OCR 21st Century: 2011 specification
Made by Nabilah Chowdhury

Copyrighted

References: OCR 21st Century Further Sciences Book, CGP: OCR 21st century + various internet
sources




Topic 1: Movement and exercise
Brief intro
11/06/13

Ver
tebr
ates
have
a j
oint
i
nter
nal
skel…

Page 2

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B7 Notes 2

Muscl
es
w or
k i
n an
ant
agoni
st
ic
pai
r when
one
cont
ract
s t
he
other
r
elaxes.

Physi
other
apy hel
ps
heal
inj
uri
es.
BMI
calcul
ati
ons
all
ow you
to
mo ni
tor
l
evel
s…

Page 3

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B7 Notes 3

Smoo t
h l
ayer
whi
ch pr
event
s gr
indi
ng
of
bones
I
t
als
o
compresses
when
bones come
too
close
toget
her
=
shock
absor
ber

Synovial fluid
O il
y l
u bri
cant
that
r
educes
fr
ict
i
o…

Page 4

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B7 Notes 4


The
regi
me can
be adj
ust
ed t
o t
ake i
nto
consi
derat
ion
cir
culat
ory
/
respi
rat
ory
probl
ems.
You
w i
l
l
qui
ckl
y pr
ogress
(get
f
it
ter
)
if
your
l
if
est
yle…

Page 5

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B7 Notes 5

St
renuous
exerci
se heart
beat
s f
orc
e f
ull
y
When t
ense /
angr
y /
st
ressed

Measur
e t
he
BP
w hen
si
tt
ing
down
+ ar
m i
s at
chest
hei
ght
(
rai
si
ng
arms…

Page 6

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B7 Notes 6

Redness and
sw el
li
ng
Brui
si
ng
Di
ff
icul
ty
breat
h i
ng
Ache and
pains

R.I.C.E
R.I
.C.
E i
nvol
ves
reduci
ng
sympt
oms
and
creat
ing
the
ri
ght
condi
ti
ons
to
heal
t
he
inj
ury.

Rest…

Page 7

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B7 Notes 7

Graded
exer
cis
e s
are
done
step
by
step
in
order
t
o s
teadi
ly
bui
ld
up
the
str
engt
h of
t
he
muscl
e /
j
oint
.

How does physiotherapy work?

Ret
urns j
oint
s +
mu scl
es t…

Page 8

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B7 Notes 8


Val
ves
­ pr
event
backf
low
of
blood

The
hear
t
2B
1) Vena Cava (vei
n)
carri
es deoxygenated
blood i
nto
the r
ight
atr
ium.
2)T he
b l
ood mo ves
fr
om the r
ight
atr
ium t
o the
ri…

Page 9

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B7 Notes 9




White blood cells

WBC's
­ hel
p t
o f
ight
i
nfect
ions
and
att
acks
fr
om
micr
oor
gani
sms

Types

Memory cells ­ rememb er
how t
o make
the cor
rect
ant
ibody
for
t
he
anti
gen
mar
ker
s
Produce…

Page 10

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B7 Notes 10

BP i
s l
ower
in
veins
than
in
art
eri
es b/
c t
he l
ume n i
s bi
gger
so
the
blood
doesn'
t
tr
ave l
at
such
a hi
gh
speed.
Thi
s i
s b/
c we
don't
want
to…

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