P1 (Part 1) OCR TWENTY FIRST CENTURY

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  • Created by: Tami
  • Created on: 20-03-16 16:55
What is in the centre of our solar system?
The sun
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What is an asteroid?
They are irregular lumps of rock (mostly in near-circular orbit between Mars and Jupiter)
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What is a comet?
They are small objects made of rock and ice (with very elongated orbits of the sun)
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What are Dwarf planets?
They are small spherical lumps of rock in orbit around the sun. (E.G Pluto)
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Name the planets in ascending order of proximity from the sun (closest ---furthest from the sun)?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
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What is the name of our galaxy?
The Milky Way
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What are distances to objects outside the solar system measured in?
Light-years
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What is a light-year?
A light-year is the distance to which light travels in a year.
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How far does light travel per second?
300,000 km/s
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What is nuclear fusion?
Hydrogen nuclei are jammed together so hard that they combine in pairs to form the element helium. This process releases loads of energy.
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What is redshift?
The increase of wavelength from a galaxy moving away. The wavelengths shift towards the red end of the spectrum.
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When was the Universe created?
About 14000 million years ago
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When was the Sun created?
5000 million years ago
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When was the earth created?
4500 million years ago
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Where does all the information we know about distant stars and galaxies come from?
They come from radiation to which the astronomers can detect
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Describe how relative brightness is used to find the distance to stars
2 stars have the same real brightness.The further away star has a smaller relative brightness.If you know the distance to 1 of the stars,the difference in their relative brightness is used to calculate the distance to the other one.
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What are the uncertainties (disadvantages)of using relative brightness to work out distance?
-It is based on the assumption that similar types of stars have the same real brightness. - it is based on estimating the distance to one star. - dust,clouds.rain and light pollution can make it difficult to make precise observations of stars.
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Name an advantage of using telescopes in space?
They take measurement without distortion from the Earth's atmosphere.
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Define the parallax effect.
The Earth's orbiting of the Sun causes near stars to shift their position against fixed background of distant stars. t can be used to measure distance of a star.
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Limitation of Parallax effect
It only works on nearby stars
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How do heavy stars end their lives?
They end their lives as a Supernova.This is a massive explosion where all different chemicals elements, including those heavier than iron are made.
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What evidence do we have that supports the big bang?
-The detection of cosmic background radiation -redshift
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is an asteroid?

Back

They are irregular lumps of rock (mostly in near-circular orbit between Mars and Jupiter)

Card 3

Front

What is a comet?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are Dwarf planets?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name the planets in ascending order of proximity from the sun (closest ---furthest from the sun)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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