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SPECIMEN H
GENERAL CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
TWENTY FIRST CENTURY SCIENCE A183/02
PHYSICS A
Unit A183: Module P7 (Higher Tier)


Candidates answer on the question paper
A calculator may be used for this paper

OCR Supplied Materials: Duration: 1 hour
None

Other Materials Required:
Pencil
Ruler (cm/mm)



Candidate Candidate
Forename…

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TWENTY FIRST CENTURY SCIENCE DATA SHEET
Useful Relationships


The Earth in the Universe

distance = wave speed x time

wave speed = frequency x wavelength

Sustainable Energy

energy transferred = power x time

power = voltage x current

energy usefully transferred
efficiency = x 100%
total energy supplied

Explaining…

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Observing the Universe

1
lens power =
focal length

focal length of objective lens
magnification =
focal length of eyepiece lens

speed of recession = Hubble constant x distance

pressure × volume = constant

pressure
= constant
temperature

volume
= constant
temperature

energy = mass x [speed of light…

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Answer all the questions.
1 The photograph shows stars forming.




SciencePhotoLibrary R590/049



(a) When a large amount of gas in space is compressed a star is formed.
As the gas compresses the temperature of the gas increases.
As the temperature increases, the pressure in the gas changes.
Explain how…

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(b) When the temperature is high enough, nuclei can fuse together to form new elements. This
releases energy.
(i) Complete the equation for this fusion reaction with the names of the elements.


4 ................................................... ......................................... + energy
[2]


(ii) Describe how energy is released inside the Sun and transferred…

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2 In the 1950s there were two main theories about how the Universe began.




(a) Here are some astronomical statements.
Each statement agrees with what is being said by Ryle, or by Hoyle, or by both of them, or
by neither of them.
Put a tick () in the…

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(b) The graph shows the speed at which some galaxies are moving away from the Earth.


in km/s 70000



60000
in km/s




50000
Earth
Earth




40000
from
from




30000
away
away




20000
velocity
velocity




10000



0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

distance
distance…

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(iii) The Hubble constant is used to calculate the distance to galaxies.
How does decreasing the Hubble constant affect the distances calculated for distant
galaxies?
Explain your answer.


.............................................................................................................................................


.............................................................................................................................................


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......................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 10]




© OCR 2011 SPECIMEN

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3 (a) The diagram shows the stages in the life of a low mass star such as the Sun.
Complete the labels for the different stages on the diagram.
The Sun as it appears now has been done for you.




[4]




© OCR 2011 SPECIMEN Turn over

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(b) Complete and label a similar diagram for the later stages in the life of a star with very high
mass.




[3]
[Total: 7]




© OCR 2011 SPECIMEN

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