Physics P1, P2, P3 OCR 21st century

These are detailed revision notes which i have created for P1, P2 and P3 OCR 21st century.

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  • Created by: Mona
  • Created on: 25-10-14 22:00
Preview of Physics P1, P2, P3 OCR 21st century

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P1 ­ The Earth in the Universe
P1.1 What do we know about the place of the Earth in the Universe?
The Earth is one of eight planets orbiting the sun in almost circular paths, together with other smaller
objects including asteroids, dwarf planets, comets and moons. The solar system is made.
The smaller masses in our solar system are:
Planets ­ eight large masses that orbit (move around the sun)
Moons ­ small masses that orbit the planets
Asteroids ­ small, rocky masses that orbit the Sun
Comets ­ small, icy masses that orbit the sun
Dwarf planets ­ small spherical objects that have not cleared their orbits of other objects
The solar system was formed over a very long period of time, about 5000 million years ago:
The solar system started as clouds of DUST and GAS, which were pulled together by the force
of gravity
This created intense heat. Eventually, NUCLEAR FUSION began to take place and a star was born:
the Sun
The remaining dust and gas formed smaller masses, which were attracted to the sun
Our sun is one of thousands of millions of stars which form the Milky Way. There are thousands of
millions of galaxies and every galaxy is made up of thousands of millions of stars ­ all these galaxies
make up the UNIVERSE.
Diameter of the Earth
Diameter of the Sun
Diameter of the Earth's orbit
Diameter of the Solar system
Distance from the Sun to the nearest star
Diameter of the Milky way
Distance from the Milky way to the nearest galaxy
Because stars are so far away, all the evidence we have about distant stars and galaxies come from
the RADIATION astronomers can detect. A lot is shown when studying the ELECTROMAGNETIC
RADIATION it emits ­ e.g. the colour the star appears shows its surface temperature.

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Light travels at very high but FINITE (limited) speeds. This means that if the distance to an object is
great enough, the time taken for light to get there can be measured.
The speed of light is 300,000km/s in a vacuum.
Vast distances in space are measured in LIGHT YEARS. One light year is the year is the distance light
travels in one year (approximately 9500 billion km).…read more

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The sun's energy (heat and light) comes from NUCLEAR FUSION. Hydrogen nuclei fuse (join)
together to produce a nucleus with a larger mass, i.e. a new chemical element.
Hydrogen nucleus + Hydrogen nucleus Helium nuclei
During fusion, some of the energy trapped inside the hydrogen nuclei is released. All the chemical
elements with a larger mass than helium were formed by nuclear fusion in earlier stars.…read more

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Measuring the amount of mass in the Universe is very difficult, so it's ultimate fate.
P1.2 What do we know about the Earth and how it is changing?
Rocks provide evidence for changes in the Earth:
Erosion ­ the Earth's surface is made up of LAYERS of rock, one on top of the other with the
oldest at the bottom. The layers are made of compacted SEDIMENT, which is produced by
weathering and EROSION.…read more

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Wegner also claimed that when two continents collided, they forced each other upwards to MAKE
MOUNTAINS.…read more

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The Earth's crust, together with the upper region of the mantle, consists of huge blocks of rock
called TECTONIC PLATES.
Volcanoes, mountains and earthquakes occur at the edges of tectonic plates ­ their creation
depends on the direction the plates are moving.…read more

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EARTHQUAKES produce wave motions on the surface and inside the Earth which can be detected by
instruments located on the Earth's surface.
There are two types of shock waves: P ­ waves and S ­ waves. Differences in the speed of P ­ and
S- waves can be used to give evidence for the structure of the Earth.…read more

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The distance travelled by a wave can be worked out using the formula:
Distance (metres) = Wave speed (metres per second m/s) x Time (seconds)
All waves have several important features:
Amplitude ­ The maximum disturbance caused by a wave. It is measured by the distance
from a crest or trough of the wave to the undisturbed position.
Wavelength ­ The distance between corresponding points on two adjacent cycles.
Frequency ­ the number of waves produced in one second. Frequency is measured in hertz
(Hz).…read more

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P2 ­ Radiation and life
P2.1 What types of electromagnetic radiation are there? What happens when radiation hits an
object?
White light can be split up into a spectrum of many different colours and visible light is just part of a
continuous spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.
Light is one of a family of RADIATIONS called the ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM.…read more

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The energy arriving at a SQUARE METRE of surface per second is a useful measure of the strength
(or the INTENSITY) of a beam of electromagnetic radiation.
The INTENSITY depends on the number of photons delivered per second and the amount of
energy each individual packet, i.e. the photon energy.
The intensity of a beam of radiation DECREASES with distance, so the further away from a source you
are, the lower the intensity.…read more

Comments

Dave

If you have P4 P5 P6 notes as well that would be very helpful i am finding your notes prefect for my revison keep up the good work 

Supernaturalfangirl

oh my god these are amazing.... you are amazing. Do you have any detailed notes like these on P4 P5 P6 and P7?    thank you for your amazing notes

23456gfxcgfjvgnj ncbcfg

probably useful if I could read them.

can you do a brail version  

Cymogan

These notes have proved extremely helpful for me to revise from for my upcoming P1, P2 and P3 Physics Exam. Thank you very much for creating such detailed notes- definitely five stars!

LexaBen

This is really detailed and it is going to help me a lot. Thank you.

JoHnNy McInAlLy

no

gemma252

i can't read it which is annoying

2000leebee

Anything on p4, 5, and 6? Would be ideal as we ave o do the extended course of study :( thanks!

korede123

Sfe g

zahraakhtar11

Absolutely phenomenal

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