Origins

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Where, when and why did early humans evolve?
Tropical Africa- 6 million years ago climate change drivers. Conditions became cooler+drier= forests retreated leaving open grasslands.
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How are the feet of humans different to Lowland Gorillas?
Gorillas- good capacity to grasp- large space between smaller toes and big toe. Humans- no large space between toes but propulsive pad for walking on flat ground.
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Define Bipedalism.
Standing and walking on two legs
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Suggest some advantages of bipedalism
Hands are freed- manipulate objects- carry food and infants. Family group can move together more efficiently to escape danger. See above the grasses to find food and avoid predators. Increased heat loss to air + reduced area exposed to sunlight.
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What anatomical changes occurred to allow the continued change to bipedalism?
Muscles in buttocks pull spine upright, Spine=s- shaped to be a good centre of gravity, pelvis located legs directly beneath the body, fore-limbs have developed as a balancing aid by swinging along the line of the spine.
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What other anatomical changes have occurred in humans compared to primates? How are these an advantage?
Developed syntax= knowledge passed on e.g. making of tools. Mental capacity= increased= adapting to social situations- help compete for mates- thinking ahead+ predicting outcomes. Better memory= language and capacity for imagination.
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How does the human lifecycle differ to primates?
Human children remain with family for longer + live for some years after reproducing= knowledge passed down (society's wisdom).
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How does natural selection lead to evoution?
Traits that offer a selective advantage become dominant in a population over time. If this trait becomes more pronounced in one population or other traits build up, a new species may be produced.
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What type of variation are inherited differences?
Genotypic
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When can asexual reproduction be an advantage? When isn't this the case?
When environmental conditions are stable-adapted to conditions= reproductive success lots of offspring produced. Change- difficult to adapt- limited variation.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction>
Lots of risk + heavy costs. But if environment changes- greater range of adaptive resources due to variation.
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Why does sexual reproduction produce more variation?
Game from male + gamete from female= Whole new combination. Plus variation produced from meiosis in gamete production-" cross over and homologous recombination."
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What does the genus of homosapien refer to?
Ability to make tools
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How are the feet of humans different to Lowland Gorillas?

Back

Gorillas- good capacity to grasp- large space between smaller toes and big toe. Humans- no large space between toes but propulsive pad for walking on flat ground.

Card 3

Front

Define Bipedalism.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Suggest some advantages of bipedalism

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What anatomical changes occurred to allow the continued change to bipedalism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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