organic chemistry definitions

it covers the key terms of module 1 and 2 of OCR A2 chemistry in F324.

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hydrocarbons
They are organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms only.
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saturated hydrocarbon
is a hydrocarbon containing single bonds only.
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unsaturated hydrocarbon
is a hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds.
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aliphatic hydrocarbon
is a hydrocarbon where the carbon atoms are joined together in straight or branched chains.
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alicyclic hydrocarbon
is a hydrocarbon with the carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure.
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functional group
is the part of the organic molecule that is responsible for its chemical reactions.
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homologous series
it is a series of organic compounds with the same functional group where each successive member differs by CH2
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arenes
they are aromatic compounds containing one ore more benzene rings
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aromatic compunds
they are organic compounds containing at least one benzene ring
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delocalised electrons
they are electrons shared between more than two atoms.
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addition reaction
it is a reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to form a saturated molecule.
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electrophile
it is an atom or group of atoms that is attracted to an electron-rich centre, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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reaction mechanism
is a series of steps that together make up the overall reaction.
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curly arrow
it is a symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of a covalent bond.
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electronegativity
it is the measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond.
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stem
is the longest carbon chain present in an organic molcule.
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suffix
is the part of the name added after the stem.
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redox reaction
it is a reaction in which both reduction and oxidation take place.
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reflux
is the continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry.
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neucleophile
it is an atom or group of atoms attracted to an electron-deficient centre from where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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esterification
it is the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water.
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hydrolysis
it is a reaction with water or hydroxide ions that breaks a chemical compound into two compounds
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low-density lipoproteins
they are responsible for carrying cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the tisues
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high-density lipoproteins
they can remove cholesterol from the arteries and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilisation
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amines
they are derivatives of ammonia formed when the hydrogen atoms from the ammonia molecule have been replaced one at a time by hydrocarbon chains.
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peptide
it is a compound made of amino acids liked together by peptide bonds
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amino acids
they are the essential building blocks for two important groups of biological molecules being peptides and proteins.
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zwitterion
it is the dipolar ionic form of an amino acid that is formed by the donation of a hydrogen ion from the carboxylic acid group to that amine group where there is no overall charge due to the presence of both charges.
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isoelectrict point
it is the pH value at which the amino acid exists as a zwitterion.
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stereoisomers
they are species with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement of atoms in space.
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chiral carbon
it is a carbon atom attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms.
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optical isomers (enatiomers)
they are stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other.
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repeat unit
it is th specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the structure over and over again.
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biodegradable polymer
it is a polymer that breaks down completely into carbon dioxide and water
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degradable polymer
it is a polymer that breaks down into smaller fragments when exposed to light, heat or moisture.
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pharmacological activity
it is the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
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catalyst
it is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the process.
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carbocation
is an organic ion in which a carbon atom has a positive charge.
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monomers
they are small molecules that combine with many other monomers to form a polymer.
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polymer
it is a long molecular chain built up from monomer units.
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skeletal formula
it is a simplified organic formula with hydrogen atoms removed from the alkyl chains leaving just the carbon skeleton and associated functional groups.
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reduction
it is the gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation number
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reducing agent
it is a reagent that reduces another species
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oxidation
it is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation number
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oxidising agent
it is a reagent that oxidises another species
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oxidation number
it is a measure of the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of another element.
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structural formula
a formula showing the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

is a hydrocarbon containing single bonds only.

Back

saturated hydrocarbon

Card 3

Front

is a hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

is a hydrocarbon where the carbon atoms are joined together in straight or branched chains.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

is a hydrocarbon with the carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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