intro or organic chemistry

  • Created by: money_k01
  • Created on: 20-10-17 17:25
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  • Introduction to organic chemistry
    • Structural isomers
      • posistional isomers
        • functional group attached to main chain at different positions
        • CH3CH(OH)(CH2)3CH3
        • OH(CH2)5CH3
          • CH3CH(OH)(CH2)3CH3
      • chain isomers
        • hydrocarbon chain arranged differently
        • slightly different bpts
        • CH3(CH2)4CH3
          • CH3C(CH3)2CH2CH3
            • chain isomers
              • hydrocarbon chain arranged differently
              • slightly different bpts
              • CH3(CH2)4CH3
                • CH3C(CH3)2CH2CH3
        • functional group isomers
          • different functional group
          • same molecular formula
          • ketone to aldehyde
          • carboxylic acid to ester
          • alkene to cycloalkane
        • types of compound
          • secondary
            • one branch coming off
          • primary
            • straight chain
          • tertiary
            • 2 branched chains coming off
        • definition
          • same molecular formula diccferent structural formula
      • Nomenclature
        • types of formula
          • empirical
            • simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in molecule
              • CH2O
                • C6H12O6
          • molecular
            • how many of each type of atom in molecule
              • C6H12O6
          • stuctural
            • shows arrangement of atoms without showing every bond
              • CH3-(CH2)3-CH2-OH
          • displayed
            • shows every atom and every bond in molecule
          • skeletal
            • shows simplified organic formula by removing H atoms from carbon chain
              • /\/\/\ = heptane
        • IUPAC system
          • number principal chain from one end to give lowest numbers
            • side chains appear in alphabetical order
              • give each side chain a number to make them both on lowest number possible
                • add prefix if identical side chains more than once
                  • no.s separated from words with hyphen
                    • no.s separated from other no.s by comma
                      • 2,3-dimethylpropane
                    • 2-chloropentane
                  • di, tri, tetra, penta
              • 2-fluoro-4-iodobutane
        • functional groups
          • ketone
            • -CO-
              • -one
          • aldehyde
            • -COH
              • -al
          • alcohol
            • -OH
              • -ol
          • nitrile
            • -CN
              • -nitrile
          • amine
            • -NH^2
              • -amine
          • acyl chloride
            • -COCl
              • -oyl chloride
          • alkene
            • C=C
              • -ene
          • ester
            • -COO-
              • -oate
          • halogenoalkane
            • -CX
              • X=hydrocarbon
              • bromo(pentane)
          • carboxylic acid
            • -COOH
              • -oic acid
                • highest priority whn naming
          • reactive part of molecule
          • molecules with same functional grouo react in same way
        • homologous series
          • family of organic compound
            • different chain lengths
            • same functional group
          • same chemical properties
            • flammability
            • toxicity
            • radioactivity
          • different physical properties
            • BP/MP
            • mass
            • density

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