organic reactions ch4

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  • Created by: f_owen
  • Created on: 12-04-16 16:33
Friedel crafts reaction
R=iodomethane, C=anhydrous conditions, alcl3, room temp M=electrophillic sub
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R= CL2 C=room temp, anhydrous conditions, absence of light,halogen carrier M=electrophillic sub
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Nitration of benzene
R=conc nitric + sulphuric acid C=reflux below 55 M=electrophillic sub
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Aldehyde/Ketone to nitrile
R= HCN in presence of KCN C= reflux in alkaline solution M=nucleophillic addition
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Halogenoalkanes to alcohol
R= aq NAOH C=reflux M=nucleophillic sub
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Aldehydes/Ketones to alcohol
R= NaBH4 C=aqueous or alcoholic solution M= reduction OR R=hydrogen gas C=nickel catalyst M=hydrogenation
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Alcohol to alkene
R=conc sulphuric acid C= reflux 180 M=elimination OR R= hot al2o3 C= vapour
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Alcohol to Ester
R= acid chloride C= reflux in dry conditions M=addition-elimination OR R=carboxylic acid C=reflux + conc sulphuric acid M=esterification(addition elimination)
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oxidation of alcohols
R= acidified potassium dichromate (k2cr2o7) C= distilling for A, reflux for C and heating for K
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alcohol to chloroalkane
R= conc hcl C=room temp
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alcohol to bromoalkane
R= conc hydrobromic acid aq C= reflux OR R=sodium/potassium bromide and sulphuric acid
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alcohol to iodoalkane
R= sodium/potassium iodie C=conc phosphoric acid C=reflux
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Lucas Test
R= anhydrous zinc chloride + conc hcl C= anhydrous
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Phenol with metallic sodium
R=sodium + phenol C= warmed in dry tube. it gives sodium phenoxide + h2
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phenol + bromine
R= bromine water/ NO2+ M= electrophillic sub. positions 2,4,6 + white ppt + decolourisation of bromine water
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Esterification of phenol
R= acid chloride C=room temp
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Phenol and iron (111) chloride
R= neutral iron 3 chloride solution O= purple colourisation
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Tollens Reageant
Aldehydes give silver mirror Ketones dont
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Fehlings solution
aliphatic aldehydes give red ppt, ketones dont
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aldehydes and ketones give yellow orange crystals
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triiodomethane reaction
R= naoh aq + i2 solution O= pale yellow ppt for CH3CO OR CH3CH(OH)
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hydrolysing esters ( ester to c.acid)
R= water C= reflux in acidic conditions. it gives parent c.acid and alcohol OR R=naoh (ggives salt) C=reflux in alkaline conditions. then add acid to give c.acid
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hydrolysing acid chlorides (a.chlorides to esters)
R= water C=cold water O=midty fumes (addition elimination)
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oxidation of akyl benzene side chains
R= alkaline potassium mangante vii + sulphuric acid to dilute C=reflux O= always benzoic acid puprle to dark brown
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c.acids with metal, hydrogencarbonate + bases
metal= h2 gas hc=co2 base=salt of c.acid
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c.acids with iron 3 chloride solution
benzoic = buff colourisation salts= red/brown
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c.acids to acid chlorides
R= thionyl chloride or phosphorous v chloride C=dry
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halogenoalkanes to nitriles
R=kcn in ethanol C=reflux M=nucleophillic sub
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Reducing nitriles (nitriles to p.amines)
R=lialh4 in ether + then add dilute acid
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Hydrolysing nitriles (nitrile to c.acid)
R=dilute hcl C= reflux gives c.acid and ammonium chloride OR R=naoh C=reflux gives ammonia(red to blue) and sodium salt add dilute sulphuric acid
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c.acid to amide
R=solid ammonium carbonate +excess acid C=reflux M=dehydration
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Acid chloride/ esters to amides
R= ammonia M=ammonolysis a.chloride gives amide and hcl ester gives amide and alcohol
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Hydrolysing amides
R=dilute hcl C=reflux gives acid and ammonium chloride R=naoh solution and sulphuric acid C=reflux gives ammonia gas and salt then c.acid
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reduction of c.acids
R=lialh4 in ether gives primary alcohol
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Decarboxylation of c.acids
R= soda lime (cao/naoh) C=heating one fewer in carbon chain calcium salt of acid heated gives aldehyde/ketone
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halogenoalkanes to primary amines
R= AQ, ALCOHOLIC AMMONIA C=reflux in sealed tubes in boiling water with alcoholic solution add naoh to liberate salt M=nucleophillic sub OR reduce nitriles
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nitrobenzene to phenylamine
R=tin +conc hcl C=reflux after cooling add naoh
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amine and acid
R=hcl M=neutralisation gives ammonium salt add excess naoh to reverse to original
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Ethanoylation of amies
R=acid chloride M=nucleophilic sub gives sec amide
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Nitrous acid + amine
R=nitrous acid (sodium nitrate + hcl) aliphatic amines react at room temp to give n2 gas, alcohol and h2o aromatic amines react below 5 degrees and in excess acid to give diazonium chloride
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phenol and diazonium chloride
R=phenol C= alkaline at 5 degrees gives yellow azo dye 4-(phenylazo)phenol
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napthalen-2-ol and diazonium chloride
R= napthalen-2-ol C=alkaline at 5 degrees gives red azo dye 1-(phenylazo)napthalen-2-ol
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phenylamine and d.chloride
yellow ppt and 4-(phenylazo)phenylamine
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R= CL2 C=room temp, anhydrous conditions, absence of light,halogen carrier M=electrophillic sub

Card 3


Nitration of benzene


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Card 4


Aldehyde/Ketone to nitrile


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Card 5


Halogenoalkanes to alcohol


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