Chemistry Unit 4 Revision Guide

This is the WJEC revision aid that has any extra notes. I also recommend buying the revision guide because it has examples of stuff, this is just mainly the theory with a little bit of backround knowledge added to it. Hope it helps! :)

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  • Created on: 26-09-12 16:25
Preview of Chemistry Unit 4 Revision Guide

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WJEC
CBAC
AS/A LEVEL
GCE in Chemistry
REVISION AID
UNIT 4
A Level
by
P.J.Barratt

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A Level
UNIT CH4 Spectroscopy and Organic Chemistry (Analysing and building molecules)
This unit builds on the foundation ideas of spectroscopy and basic organic chemistry
introduced at AS level and goes on to explore these concepts in more detail.
It also explores the use of these topics in structure elucidation, in synthesis and in industrial
and environmental applications.
TOPIC 9 Spectroscopy
TOPIC 10 Isomerism and aromaticity
TOPIC 11 Organic compounds containing oxygen
11.1 Alcohols and phenol.
11.2 Aldehydes and ketones.
11.3 Carboxylic acid and derivatives.…read more

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Topic 9 Spectroscopy
Spectroscopic techniques are invaluable tools in the determination of structure. Mass spectrometry has
already been encountered in the AS units. At A level infrared and nmr spectroscopy are encountered.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) recall the energy gradation across the electromagnetic spectrum from u.v. to visible to
i.r.…read more

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In the absence of a magnetic field the spin energy levels are the same but in the presence of a magnetic
field, the energy levels split.
The most common form of nmr is proton nmr. The 1
1 H atom has a nuclear spin of ½ and such
hydrogen atoms occur in most organic compounds. In the presence of a magnetic field the spin energy
level splits to +½ and ½.
The basics of a nuclear magnetic spectrometer are shown below.…read more

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Topic 10
Candidates should be able to:
(a) give the systematic names of all simple compounds, including benzene derivatives, containing
the functional groups occurring in this Unit;
(b) understand the term stereoisomerism as embracing both E­Z and optical isomerism;
(c) explain what is meant by a chiral centre, recall that this gives rise to optical isomerism, and be
able to identify chiral centres in given molecules, and understand what is meant by an
enantiomer;
(d) recall that enantiomers rotate plane-polarised light in opposite directions and…read more

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Alkanes.
An alkane in which the carbon atoms form a continuous chain is called a straight chain molecule.
CH2 CH2 CH2
H3C CH2 CH2 CH3
heptane
CH2 CH2 CH2
2 4 6
H3C CH2 CH2 CH3
1 3 5 7
The seven carbon atoms numbered
CH3
One isomer of heptane is 2-methylhexane
CH CH2 CH3
2 4 6
H3C CH2 CH2
1 3 5
The ­CH3 group is called the methyl group as it is derived from methane, CH4.…read more

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Naming alkenes
Like alkanes the structure is examined for the longest straight-chain carbon chain.
The name is based on the hydrocarbon with the same number of C-atoms as the longest continuous
carbon chain that contains the double bond.
The lowest number is used to show the position of the double bond.
The ending "ene" replaces the ending "ane" in the alkanes.…read more

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Functional Groups
Functional Group Type of Prefix in Suffix in
compound name name
>C=C< C C alkene ene
arene, aromatic
C6H5- phenyl- benzene
compounds
H
-CH2OH
C O
primary alcohol hydroxy- -ol
H
H
C
>CHOH
C C O
secondary alcohol hydroxy- -ol
H
H
C
COH C C O tertiary alcohol hydroxy- -ol
H
C
O
-CHO
C aldehydes -al
H
>CO O
R C ketones oxo- -one
R
Ar-OH phenol
OH
any OH attached to
a benzene ring hydroxy- -ol
is a phenolic…read more

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O
-(CO)2O C
O acid anhydrides anhydride
C
O
-CO2R O
C ester -oate
O R
R-O-R O ether oxy-
R R
-NH2 H
N primary amine amino- amine
H
R2NH H
R N secondary amine amino- amine
R
R3 N R
R N
tertiary amine amino- amine
R
R4N+ R +
quaternary
R N R ammonium ion
R
-CONH2 O
C
H
N
amide amido- amide
H
R
RCH(NH2)COOH H C COOH
-amino acid
NH2
O
-NO2 N nitro compounds nitro-
O
C N…read more

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Cl
-Cl chloro compounds chloro- -chloride
-Br
-Br bromo compounds bromo- -bromide
-I
-I iodo compounds iodo- -iodide
(b) STEREOISOMERISM
This occurs with compounds with the same molecular and structural formulae but which have a
different arrangement of their atoms in space.
E-Z isomerism
With an alkane such as ethane, C2H6, there is free rotation about the carbon-carbon single bond.…read more

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