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WJEC
CBAC


AS/A LEVEL
GCE in Chemistry

REVISION AID

UNIT 4
A Level
by

P.J.Barratt

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i




A Level


UNIT CH4 Spectroscopy and Organic Chemistry (Analysing and building molecules)

This unit builds on the foundation ideas of spectroscopy and basic organic chemistry
introduced at AS level and goes on to explore these concepts in more detail.

It also explores the use of these topics in structure…

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Topic 9 Spectroscopy

Spectroscopic techniques are invaluable tools in the determination of structure. Mass spectrometry has
already been encountered in the AS units. At A level infrared and nmr spectroscopy are encountered.

Candidates should be able to:

(a) recall the energy gradation across the electromagnetic spectrum from u.v. to…

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In the absence of a magnetic field the spin energy levels are the same but in the presence of a magnetic
field, the energy levels split.
The most common form of nmr is proton nmr. The 1
1 H atom has a nuclear spin of ½ and such

hydrogen…

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Topic 10

Candidates should be able to:
(a) give the systematic names of all simple compounds, including benzene derivatives, containing
the functional groups occurring in this Unit;

(b) understand the term stereoisomerism as embracing both E­Z and optical isomerism;

(c) explain what is meant by a chiral centre, recall…

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Alkanes.
An alkane in which the carbon atoms form a continuous chain is called a straight chain molecule.


CH2 CH2 CH2
H3C CH2 CH2 CH3

heptane
CH2 CH2 CH2
2 4 6
H3C CH2 CH2 CH3
1 3 5 7
The seven carbon atoms numbered
CH3
One isomer of…

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Naming alkenes
Like alkanes the structure is examined for the longest straight-chain carbon chain.
The name is based on the hydrocarbon with the same number of C-atoms as the longest continuous
carbon chain that contains the double bond.
The lowest number is used to show the position of the…

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Functional Groups


Functional Group Type of Prefix in Suffix in
compound name name

>C=C< C C alkene ene

arene, aromatic
C6H5- phenyl- benzene
compounds
H

-CH2OH
C O
primary alcohol hydroxy- -ol
H
H


C
>CHOH
C C O
secondary alcohol hydroxy- -ol
H
H


C

COH C C…

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O
-(CO)2O C

O acid anhydrides anhydride
C

O
-CO2R O

C ester -oate
O R
R-O-R O ether oxy-
R R
-NH2 H
N primary amine amino- amine
H
R2NH H
R N secondary amine amino- amine
R
R3 N R
R N
tertiary amine amino- amine
R…

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-Cl
-Cl chloro compounds chloro- -chloride




-Br
-Br bromo compounds bromo- -bromide




-I
-I iodo compounds iodo- -iodide




(b) STEREOISOMERISM
This occurs with compounds with the same molecular and structural formulae but which have a
different arrangement of their atoms in space.
E-Z isomerism
With an alkane such as…

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