OCR21st Century Combined Science B2

  • Created by: kokokeisy
  • Created on: 24-04-18 15:44
Define being healthy.
One thats in a state of well-being mentally and physically.
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Define a disease.
A conditon that damages cells of a host and normal structures or functionings of an organism
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Causes of a disease>?
-Infection by pathogen -Mutation in the genes. -Being affected by environmental conditions. -Trauma -The organisms lifestyle.
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Define a communicable disease.
A disease that can spread between organisms.
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Define a pathogen.
A type of microorganism that causes disease.
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Name the 4 different types of pathogen.
Bacteria, Viruses, Protists, Fungi
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Define a non-communicable disease
A disease that cannot be passed from one organism to another.
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Define a Symptom.
Changes in the organisms that indicates a disease is present.
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Define an incubation period.
The time between being infected by a pathogen and showing symptoms of a disease.
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Give Examples of diseases which can make you more or less likely to suffer from another disease.
HIV, Helminths, Trichinosis
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Define Bacteria
Small Cells which can reproduce rapidly and produce toxins to damage your cells and tissues
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Define a Virus
NOT CELLS.Replicate inside the infected organisms and burst , releasing the virus.
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Define a Protist
Eukaryotic-Single celled
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Define Fungi
Single Celled made up of Hyphae-grow and penetrate human skin and plants, causing disease and spores
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How do Pathogens spread through Water?
Dirty Water
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How do Pathogens spread through Air?
Airborne Pathogens and Wind
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How do Pathogens spread through Surfaces?
Touching contaminated surfaces.
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How do Pathogens spread through body fluids>?
Sharing Needles, Breast Milk, Semen,
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How do Pathogens spread through Animal Vectors?
Animals that spread diseases are VECTORS.
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How do Pathogens spread through Soil?
Contaminated Soil can infect plants.
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How do Pathogen spread through Food?
Eating contaminated food e.g Salmonella
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Give Examples of Physical Defenses against Pathogens
-Respiratory tract lined with mucus and cilia, -Skin, -Platelets
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Give examples of Chemical Defenses against Pathogens
-Eyes-Saliva-Stomach (Enzymes and HCl)
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Give Examples of Microbial Defenses against Pathogens
Competing against Bacteria for resources living in the gut./
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What do White Blood Cells do>?
Travel around the blood looking for foreign antigens and pathogens
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Define an Antigen
An unique molecule on the surface on a specific cell type.
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Describe Phagocytosis
When White Blood Cells (PHAGOCYTES) have a flexible membrane which contain lots of enzymes and engulf and digest foreign cells
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How are antibodies produced?
Receptors in the membrane of a WBC bind to antigens and produce antibodies (proteins) which bind to the antigen. Theyre specific to that antigen.
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Define a Memory Cell.
White blood cell that stays around in the blood after pathogens been fought off so it can attack the pathogen quicker if it comes back
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What do antitoxins do?
They limit the damage done by invading pathogens that may have released toxins
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Ways in which you can prevent the spread of disease within animals?
-Good Hygiene -Sterilising wounds -Living in Sanitary Conditions -Destroying infected animals -Isolating infected individuals -Vaccination
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Ways in which you can prevent the spread of disease within plants?
-Regulating movemet of plant material -Destroyoing infected plants -Crop Rotation -Polyculture -Chemical Control -Biological control
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Define biological control
When another organism is used to control a pest or pathogen
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Define a Vaccination
Injecting dead,inactive or weakened pathogens in the body to prevent you from getting the disease
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Define an epidemic
Big outbreaks of disease
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Pros to Vaccinations?
Help control communicable diseases
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Cons to Vaccinations
-Dont always work -Bad reaction -Expensive to make and carry out
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Where can Bacteria be grown?
In a culture Medium filled with Carbohydrates, Minerals, Proteins and vitamins
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In a lab, why cant cultures of microorganisms be kepy above 25 degrees?
Theres a risk pathogens can grow
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Define Antibiotics
Substances which kill or reduce the growth of bacteria
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Define a control
Something part of an experiment where nothing has been done to it
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What are Aseptic Techniques for?
To prevent contamination of unwanted microoganisms
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What aseptic techniques would you use to prevent contamination when investigating bacterial growth?
Sterlilise Petri Dishes & Culture Medium, Use a bunsen burner to draw away other microorganisms
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When looking at Risk Factors, why may correlation not always equal cause?
Sometimes a risk factor is linked to another factor, and another factor may not be the cause of the disease.
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How does exercise affect the risk of getting a non-communicable disease?
It decreases the amount of stored body fat, which can decrease the risk of obesity and CVD
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How does Alcohol lead to you getting a non-communicable disease?
The products broken down by the liver are toxic,which can cause cirrhosis. It can increase blood pressure (CVD) and can cause cancer
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Describe Cirrrhosis.
When alcohol consumtion leads to the death of liver cells, forming scar tissue which stops the blood reaching the liver
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How does Smoking lead to a non-communicable diseasE?
Carbon monoxide reduces oxygen being carried around the blood, causes CVD, Heart Attack, increased blood pressure. Cigarette smoke filled with carcinogens, Lung Disease/Chronic Bronchitis, Health problems of baby
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Define a Carcinogen
Chemicals which can cause cancer, and make mutations in the DNA more likely causing uncontrolled cell division
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Where are lifestyle factors linked to non-communicable diseases more common and what ones?
In DEVELOPED countries with a higher income, like lack of exercise and higher alcohol consumption
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On a global scale, what lifestyel factors linked to non-communicable diseases are related with people in DEVELOPING countries with a low income?
Smoking-related deaths
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On a global scale, what lifestyle factors both affect people with a high and lower income?
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On a National Scale, what are people from deprived areas more likely to do?
MOre likely to smoke, have a poor diet, and not take part in Physical Activity
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Whats good about using a scatter diagram to plot data?
You can easily spot if theres a correlation between two variables.
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When collecting Health Data, why is it good to collect a large sample size?
Its more likely that more different characteristics are present in a whole population in the sample
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When collecting a sample, why should the sample be random?
to avoid bias
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How would you study issues about health and disease?
Using a sample that REPRESENTS the full POTENTIAL data set,
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What happens when you exercise?
More oxygen needs to get into your cells as your rate of respiration increases to get more energy, causing heart rate to increase
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How can you investigate how exercise affects heart rate?
Investigating Pulse Ratae
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How can scientists investigate the link between regular exercise, a resting heart rate, and recovery heart rate?
Doing a long term study on people who do not exercise regularly, split them in half and have one half to exercise and the other to not.
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Why would studying exercise and heart rates be helpful for determining lifestyle recommendations?
It can determine what kind of exercise and length of training may be most effective for improving a persons heart rate or recovery rate,
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Define a painkiller
Drugs that relieve pain and reduce symptoms
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What do painkillers NOT do?
tackle the cause of a disease
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Define an antibiotic
chemicals that kill bacteria without killing your own body cells; prevent bacterial infections from happening
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How are anitibiotics made?
Naturally by fungi nd microorganisms
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Define an antiviral
Used to treat viral infections; dont kill the virus just stops it from reproducing
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Why are antivirals difficult to produce?
Viruses uses host cells to replicate so its hard to target a virus without damaging the cell.
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Cons to Medicines
Can cause allergic reactions, Expensive, May not be fully effective
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What can the misuse of antibiotics lead to?
Increase rate of development of resistant bacteria.
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Give an example of a resistant bacteria
MRSA (hospital bacteria)
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When might a doctor NOT prescribe antibiotics?
if its only a minor infection or if its not really needed.
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Describe Coronary heart disease
When fatty deposites in the arteries narrow them, leading to a lot of ATHEROMAS, restricting blood flow to the heart.
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What can lead to a Heart Attack?
If an atheroma breaks off or damages a blood vessel, forming a blood clot and restricting blood flow and a complete blockage of artery, depriving heart of oxygen
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What causes a stroke?
Blockage of an artery to the brain
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Define an atheroma
Hardended fatty deposits
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What can you do to your lifestyle to treat CVD.
Healthy Diet, Reducing Stress, Quit Smoking, Exercising Regularly
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What medicines can treat CVD and how
STATINS-reduce amount of cholesterol in bloodstream ANTICOAGULANTS- make blood clots less likely to form ANTIHYPERTENSIVES - reduce blood pressure and blood clots and atheromas forming
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SideEffects of Statins
Kidney Failure, Liver Damage, Memory problems
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Side Effects of Anticpagulants
Excessive bleeding
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Side Effects of Antihypertensives
Headaches and fainting
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What surgeries can treat CVD?
-Inserting tubes inside arteries to keep them open -Coronary Bypass Surgery -Donor Heart
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Describe Coronary Bypass Surgery
A piece of healthy blood vessel is taken and used to bypass the blocked section
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Whats the problems with getting a donor heart?
It can be recognised as foreign, and not pump properly
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Describe Pre-Clinical Testing
Drugs are tested on Cultured Human Cells, then its tested on Live animals. USed to test safety and effectiveness of drug
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Describe clinical testing
Drug is tested on human volunteers in clinical trial. First on Healthy Volunteers, then in two groups with one with a placebo and one with the real drug
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Define the Placebo Effect
When the patient expects the treatment to work and 'feels better' evenif treatment isnt doing anything
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Define a Blind Trial
When the patient doesnt know whether theyre getting a drug or a placebo
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Define a double blind trial
Where the patient nor the doctor knows whos getting the drug or placebo
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Define an open label trial
Where the doctor and the patient are awarae of who is receiving the drug
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Why may an open label trial be used?
To compare the effectiveness of two similar drugs.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define a disease.


A conditon that damages cells of a host and normal structures or functionings of an organism

Card 3


Causes of a disease>?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Define a communicable disease.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Define a pathogen.


Preview of the front of card 5
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