OCR 21st Century Combined Science B3

Rate
a measure of how much something changes over time
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Equation for Rate
amount that its changed / time taken for change to happen
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Producers
organisms that produce their own food
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Consumers
organims that cannot make their own food and eat producers
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Biomass
mass of living material
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Food Chain
sequqnce that shows how each individual feeds on the organism in a chain
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Order of a food chain
Producer -> Primary Consumers -> SEcondary Consumer ->Tertiary consumer
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Predator
animal that hunts and kills other animals for food
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Individual
a single organism
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Organism
individual animal,plant or single-celled life form
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Population
number of living things/all organisms of one species in a habitat
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Community
All different organisms living in the same habitat
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Habitat
the area in which organisms live
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Ecosystem
a community of organisms along with abiotic conditions
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Abiotic
Non-living components
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Biotic
Living Components
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Niche
position and role of an organism within its ecosystem
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What animals compete for?
Water, MAtes, Space(Territory), Food, Water , Shelter
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What plants compete for?
Light, Pollinators, Minerals, Water Seed dispersers
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Whats a resource that doesnt cuase interspecific competitiion?
Mates
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Abiotic Factors for survival
Distribution of species due to temperature, light intensity, soil pH, moisture level
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Biotic Factors for survival
Availability of food, Number of Predators, Presence of pathogens
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Bioaccumilation
build up of chemical pesticides or fertilisers
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Eutrophication
excess fertilisers released into lakes and ponds causing increased growth of algae
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Indicator species
organisms sensitive to changes in their environment and can be studied as to how polluted an area is
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Examples of indicator species
Stonefly larvae, Blood worms, Lichen
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Stable Community
where living and non-living factors are balanced
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Interdependence
different species within an ecosystem are connected and depend on each other for food, shelter, pollintation and reproduction
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What do food webs do
show how food chains are linked and how all species in the food web are interdependenttn
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Symbosis
when two organisms of different species live together in a very close relationship
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Mutalism
both species benefiting in a relationship
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Parasitism
one species benefits at the expense of other species
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Natural Selection
ensures individual s within a species have traits that make the well adapted to their envrionment, if a habitat changes, previous traits can become a disadvantage, so species become extinct if they cant adapt
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What do microorganisms do in recycling materials?
They release carbon and nitrogen from dead organisms and transform them into substamces that are easier to use
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Biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem
carbon, nitrogen and water
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Why are decomposers important?
It returns mineral ions and carbon back into the environment
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Detritus
dead and decaying matter
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Detrivore
organisms that feed on detritus
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What is a quadrat used for
comparing how common an organism is intwo sample areas
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How do you estimate a population size
find the mean number of organims per m^2 (2) Multiply mean by total area of habitat
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Cons of using a quadrat
hard to count fast-moving animals, must be placed on a fairly flat piece of land, method is limited to slow moving animals and plants,.
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Whats a Transect used for
To investigate distribution and how it gradually changes across an area
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Describe a capture-mark-release-recapture
capture sample and mark animals (2) release back into environment (3) Recapture and count how much of sample is marked
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What is capture-mark-release-recapture used for
estimate population sizes without harming anything in the process
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Population size equation
number in first sample % number in second sample / number in second sample previously marked
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Organic molecules
Molecules that contain carbon
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What does glucose turn into
Starch
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What does Amino acids turn into
Protien
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What does Glycerol and fatty acids turn into
Lipids
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What are all synthesis reactions catalysed by
enzymes
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Examples of Organic molecules
Fatty acids, Glucose, Sugars, Glycerol, Glucose+ Nitrate ions=amino acids
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Examples of long chain molecules
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids
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Use of larger molecules
to build structures like cell membranes and organelles
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Test for Sugar (Bendicts Reagant)
Add Benedict Reagant (Blue) to sample + heat at 75. If sugar is present, coloured precipitae will form
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Test for Starch (Iodine)
Add iodine to sample, if present sample goes from browny orange to blue-black
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Test for Proteins (Biuret Test)
(1) Add sodium hydroxide to make solution alkaline (2) Add Copper Sulfate (bright blue) (3) If present, solution will turn purple, if not, will stay blue
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Test for Lipids (Emulsion Test)
(1) Shake substance with ethanol until its dissolved. (2) Pour in Water (3) If present, solution will be milky emulsion
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Carbon Cycle
Enters Atmoshpere as CO2 from respiration and cmbustion. Absorbed by producers in photosynthesis. Consumers feed and exhale co2. Consumers nd Producers die and release co2 from decomposers. Remains can be used as fossil fuels for combustion.
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Water Cycle
Sun heats Earths Surface, Water evaporates and carries water vapour with it. Moist air cools, condenses and makes clouds. Water droplets get heavier, precipiation occurs. Animals return water into soil through excretion
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Photosynthesis
Endothermic reaction that is chemical energy requireing light energy
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How do humans indirectly get their energy from the Sun
Conversion of energy from the sun into chemical energy through photosynthesis, and we eat the plant after
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Equation for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
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Testing a leaf for starch
(1) Place in boiling water to prevent chemical reactions takng place (2) Plce in ethanol to remove chlorophyll (3) Drop Iodine solution,If theres Starch present itll turn blue/black
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Limiting Factors for Photosynthesis
Light intensity, Carbom Dioxide, Temperature
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Limiting Factor
Restricting facotr that control the rate at which plants photosynthesis
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Light intensity and the inverse square law
Light intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from thelight source
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Variegated leaves
leaves that dont contain chlorophyll and are pale
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What Root Cells have and do
They have hairs which gives it a huge surface area to absorb water and mineral ions, which is drawn into the plant through osmosis
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Why do plants need nitrogen
To make proteins
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Plasmolysed
when a plant is shorrt of water, so the cytoplasm shrinks an the membrane pulls away from the cell wall.
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Feature of Xylemm
Dead, no connecting cell walls, lumen down the middle, strong, walls made of cellulose, strengenthed with lignin
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Features of Pholem
-Living cells -Perforates end-plates -Join to form long vessels to transport sugars
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Transpiraton
loss of water by evaporation from the leaves of plants
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What decreaeses the rate of transpiraton?
decreasing light intenity
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Rate of transpiration
distance moved by bubble (mm) / time (min)
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what molecules can go through a cell membrane
glucose, water, amino acids, oxygen
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

amount that its changed / time taken for change to happen

Back

Equation for Rate

Card 3

Front

organisms that produce their own food

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

organims that cannot make their own food and eat producers

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

mass of living material

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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