NUR3032

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Infection Prevention and Control.
What is the Chain of Infection?
Infectious agent
Reservoir
Portals of exit
Means of transmission
Portal of entry
Susceptible host
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Infection Prevention and Control.
What is the Entry and Exits of an infection?
Gastrointestinal tract
Respiratory tract
Skin & Mucosa
Placenta
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Infection Prevention and Control.
What measures are in place for prevention and control?
Legislation
Hand hygiene
PPE
Handling & disposal of clinical waste/sharps
Blood & Body fluids spillages
Environmental cleaning/disinfection/sterilisation
Handling & disposal of soiled linen
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Falls.
What are the risk factors?
DAME
D - Drugs & Alcohol

A - Age related problems

Mobility and balance impairment
Sensory & Cognitive impairment
M - Medical illness

E - Environmental hazards
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Falls.
When should bedrails be used?
Good practice for un-concious patients
Can make patients feel more secure
Have repeatedly been a cause of injury and death
Present a particular hazard for mobile confused patients
Should never be used without formal risk assessment
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Infant Mortality & Sudden infant death (SIDs)
What are the risk factors?
Demographic risk factors
Biological factors
Un-lawfull killings & criminal factors
Environmental factors
Socio-economic factors
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Infant Mortality & Sudden infant death (SIDs)
Preventative measures?
Vaccination
Education to parents
Smoking cessation
Infant sleeping position - sleeping on back, open airway & no obstruction.
Avoid overheating - Use Themometer
Promote breastfeeding.
Firm, flat mattress with waterproof cover.
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Public Heath
What are the concerns?
Knife crime
Mental Health
MMR
Influenza
Cancer
Increased STI's
Childhood Obesity
Sexting
Increase in illness eg ricketts and vitamin D deficiancy
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Public Health
4 aspects of the PH approach?
Prevention - reducing incidence of ill health
Protecting - minimising spread
Health Promotion - educational programmes
Services - having appropriate organisations in places that are
efficient/effective
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Nursing Assessment and Person Centred Approach.
What are the steps for the Nursing Assessment?
Assessment - gathering information. Holistic Assessment.
Diagnosis - Identifies disorder based on assessment.
Planning - Plan nursing intervention. Evidence for legal cases. Communication.
Intervention - Implementation of individualised care plan.
Evaluat
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Nursing Assessment and Person Centred Approach.
What can be used for a person-centred approach?
VIPS (Brookers, 2007)
V- A value base that asserts the value of life regardless if age etc.
I- Individual approach,
P- Consider patient perspective.
S- Provides a social environment to support psychological needs.
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Aspects of Communication.
What is non-verbal and verbal communication?
Non-Verbal - Eye contact, touch, hand gestures, facial expression, posture, body language. Nonverbal communication is the transmission of messages or signals through a nonverbal platform. 55%
Verbal - non-technical language, demonstrating empathy, paraph
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Aspects of Communication.
What is Therapeutic Use of Self?
Ability to use ones personality consciously and in full awareness in an attempt to establish relatedness and to structure interventions.
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Aspects of Communication.
What are the Core Conditions?
1) Congruence - consistency between what one feels and the way that they behave - Genuineness.
2) Empathy - capacity to identify with and comprehend the clients inner world.
3) Unconditional Positive Regard - warmth, nurturance, respect given to another
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Physiology through Lifespan.
What are the key hormones?
Testostorone Interstial cells in Testicles Spermatogenisis (development of secondary sex characteristic)

Oestrogen Ovarian follicles in the Ovaries Menstrual Cycle (development of secondary sex characteristic)

Progesterone Corpus Luteum Menstrual Cycl
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Physiology through Lifespan.
What are the key points for Menopause?
49 - 52 years
Loss of ovarian reserve
Change in hormonal levels
Oestrogen and Progesterone levels decreasing
Symptoms - Systemic - Weight gain, heaving night sweats. Palpitations, Skin- dryness, itching, thinning. Joints- soreness, stiffness. Back pain.
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Physiology through Lifespan.
What is Male Menopause called?
Andropause.
Testosterone levels decrease by less than 1% per year
Unclear cause
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Motivational Interviewing Techniques.
What are the principles of MI?
RULE
R - Resist the righting reflex. the desire to fix what seems wrong with a person and put them right.
U - Understand your clients motivations.
L - Listen to your client.
E - Empower your client.
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Motivational Interviewing Techniques.
What are the 4 steps to using MI?
OARS
O - Open questions
A - Affirmations. confidence building, genuine, affirm themselves.
R - Reflective Listening. Repeating key phrases, rounding off.
S - Summarising. recap important points.
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Maternal Mental Health.
What are some contributing factors?
Unemployment
Unplanned pregnancy
Low social class
Complicated birth
Life stressors
Lack of support
Hsitory
Difficult relationships
Sexual abuse
Social exlusion/isolation
Cultural issues
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The Inflammatory Process.
What are the signs of the Inflammatory response?
Pain
Redness
Swelling
Heat
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The Inflammatory Process.
What are some barriers to infection?
The skin (protective layer)

Skin (Protective layer)
Stomach acid
Mucus
Cough reflex
Enzymes in tears
Skin oils (sebum)
Earwax
Nasal secretions & Saliva
Respiratory defences
Intact skin
Genito-urinary tract
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The Inflammatory Process.
What is the Inflammatory Process?
Vasodilation
Increased vascular permeability
Neutrophil & leucocytes.
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Skin Integrity.
What is a pressure ulcer?
Localised damage to the skin/underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence and may be related to a medical device, resulting from sustained pressure (including pressure associated with shear). The damage can be present as intact skin or an open ulcer &
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Skin Integrity.
Skin Inspections?
Top to toe. skin folds, under any medical equipment, at least daily for those high risk, not appropriate for all with those with no risk but all should be offered skin inspections.
Risk assessment - undertaken on admission and as least weekly dependent o
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Skin Integrity.
What are the preventative measures for pressure ulcers?
Communication - with patient, colleagues, family/carers.
Nutrition - supplements if energy requires are not being met.
Repositioning - 30 degree tilt rather than 90. Turning schedule.
Equipment - mattress (foam, pressure releasing (static & alternating
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Infant feeding.
What positioning should be used for infant feeding?
CHIN
C - Close
H - Head free
I - In line
N - Nose to ******
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Infant feeding.
What clues to babies give when they are ready to feed and how long does a feed last?
Sucking fists, eyes moving around, rooting, crying (last resort), wriggling.
5 - 30 minutes
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Infant feeding.
What are the signs of effective feeding?
signs of attachment + audible swallowing = milk transfer

weight gain (lose within the first 2 weeks, 80% regain in the following 2 weeks), eating at least 8 times in 24 hours, swallowing, hard -> soft breasts, wetting 5 - 7 nappies in 24 hours.
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A - E assessment.
What is the A - E assessment?
A - Airway (ventilation)
B - Breathing (oxygenation)
C - Circulation
D - Disability (Neurological status/level of consciousness)
E - Exposure
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A - E assessment.
What are the Assessments for A and B?
A - Feel for inspiration and expiration, listen for noises when breathing, can you see anything in the mouth?
B - Respiratory rate, audible noises when breathing, unequal lung expansion, pursed lip breathing, rhythm breathing altered, use of accessory mu
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A - E assessment.
What are the Assessments for C and D?
C -Heart rate, blood pressure, pulse pressure, perfusion, capillary refill time < 2 seconds.
Pulse pressure mmHg (Millimetres of mercury) = systolic - diastolic
D -Alert, new Confusion, responsive to Voice, responsive to Pain, Unresponsive.Glasgow Coma S
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A - E assessment.
What are the Assessments for E?
E -Top to toe assessment to ensure clinical assessment is complete. It is often necessary to remove patient clothing but important to maintain body temperature and patient dignity.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Gastrointestinal tract
Respiratory tract
Skin & Mucosa
Placenta

Back

Infection Prevention and Control.
What is the Entry and Exits of an infection?

Card 3

Front

Legislation
Hand hygiene
PPE
Handling & disposal of clinical waste/sharps
Blood & Body fluids spillages
Environmental cleaning/disinfection/sterilisation
Handling & disposal of soiled linen

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

DAME
D - Drugs & Alcohol

A - Age related problems

Mobility and balance impairment
Sensory & Cognitive impairment
M - Medical illness

E - Environmental hazards

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Good practice for un-concious patients
Can make patients feel more secure
Have repeatedly been a cause of injury and death
Present a particular hazard for mobile confused patients
Should never be used without formal risk assessment

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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