SPECIALIST COMMUNITY PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING

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BRADFORD-HILL CRITERIA

KNOWN AS HILL CRITERIA FOR CAUSATION A GROUP OF CONDITIONS THAT PROVIDE EVIDENCE OF CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP

1. TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP- DOES EXPOSURE PRECEDE THE OUTCOME

 2. STRENGTH - IS THERE A STRONG STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION

3. PLAUSIBILITY - DO THE FINDINGS REFLECT CURRENT THINKING

 4. CONSISTENCY- IS THE ASSOCIATION FOUND IF REPLICATED IN DIFFERENT SETTINGS USING DIFFERING METHODS

5. DOSE-REPONSE RELATIONSHIP- DOES AN INCREASING AMOUNT OF EXPOSURE INCREASE THE RISK

 6. SPECIFICITY- DOES A SINGLE EXPOSURE RESULT IN SPECIFIC OUTCOME

 7. REVERSIBILITY- DOSE REMOVAL OF A PRESUMED CAUSE LEAD TO A REDUCTION IN THE RISK

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RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIALS

RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIALS ARE GOLD STANDARD FOR TESTING CAUSE AND EFFECT

RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIALS TEST EFFECTIVENESS

SAMPLE SIZES ARE CALCULATED HAVING HIGH PROBABILITY OF DETECTING DIFFERENCE

PARTICIPANTS ARE RANDOMLY ALLOCATED TO THE INTERVENTION AND CONTROL GROUPS USING CONCEALED METHOD ELIMINATING BIAS

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WHICH STUDIES ARE BEST FOR......

CASE CONTROL STUDIES ARE BEST FOR... ASSESSING THE CAUSE OF A LOCAL      OUTBREAK OF LEGIONNAIRES DISEASE

CROSS SECTIONAL STUDIES ARE BEST FOR... INVESTIGATING THE PREVELANCE OF ASTHMA IN UK SCHOOL CHILDREN

COHORT STUDIES ARE BEST FOR....ASSESSING WHETHER A CERTAIN DYE USED IN MANUFACTORING WAS A CAUSE FOR CANCER

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CRITICAL APPRAISAL IS...

IMPORTANT BECAUSE....

IT ENSURES A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE WHOLE PAPER

IT ALLOWS YOU TO IDENTIFY THE STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF A PIECE OF RESEARCH

IT DEVELOPS AN IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY USED TO CONDUCT THE RESEARCH

IT ALLOWS YOU TO RELATE THE PUBLISHED RESEARCH TO YOUR LOCAL SITUATION

IT ENABLES YOU TO IDENTIFY ANY BIAS IN THE RESEARCH

IT FACILITATES THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS IN YOUR CLINICAL PRACTICE

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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

ASKS "WHY" NOT "HOW" THROUGH ANALYSIS OF UNSTRUCTURED INFORMATION...

1. INTERVIEW SCRIPTS

2. EMAILS

3. FIELD NOTES

4. PHOTOS

5. VIDEOS

TO GAIN INSIGHT INTO PEOPLES ATTITUDES, BEHAVIOURS, LIFESTYLES

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WHAT IS A HEALTH NEEDS ASSESSMENT..

" HEALTH NEEDS ASSESSMENT (HNA) IS A SYSTEMATIC METHOD OF REVIEWING THE HEALTH ISSUES FACING A POPULATION

LEADING TO AGREED PRIORITIES AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION THAT WILL IMPROVE HEALTH AND REDUCE INEQUALITIES

IT IS IMPORTANT FOR....HEALTH IMPROVEMENT 

COSTS - MEDICAL ADVANCES,DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES,PUBLIC EXPECTATION

LIMITED RESOURCES- INEQUITABLE ACCESS, VARIABLE PROVISION(POST CODE)

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WHAT IS A HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT...

A " HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT" IS A COMBINATION OF, PROCEDURES, METHODS AND TOOLS BY WHICH A POLICY, PROGRAMME OR PROJECT MAY BE JUDGED AS TO ITS POTENTIAL EFFECTS ON THE HEALTH OF A POPULATION, AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE EFFECTS WITHIN THE POPULATION

ITS A WAY OF LOOKING AT POLICY, PROJECT OR PROGRAMME AND ASKING WHO IS LIKELY TO SUFFER OR BENEFIT AND HOW.

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