NUR2300 Review

Evidence-based practice (EBP)
practice that is supported by scientific evidence, clinical expertise & client values
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accepted body of facts or ideas that is acquired through the use of senses, reasons or through research methods
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Retrospective longitudinal cohort design
a type of study that was done over a long period of time, looking at a group of people in the past
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Advanced search
allows you to set specific parameters for your results, such as year, author, title or study type. Less hits = more relevant results than basic search
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Boolean operators
AND (all terms), OR (either terms) and NOT (neither terms) to expand or exclude keywords in a search, results are more focused and productive
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Search string
a list of words or phrases, which when combined are used to search for a specific piece of information
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Primary research
an original piece of research from a single study
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Secondary research
research that has examined multiple primary research papers and summarized them
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searching technique – words ending is replaced with asterisk*, question mark ? or dollar sign $ - enable the search to include all possible endings of the word
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Clinical significance
the relevance or importance of the results/findings to real-life practice
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searching technique – letters are replaced with asterisk*, question mark ? or dollar sign $ - enable search to include alternate spellings of word
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Herd immunity
indirect protection from infection due to a high level of immunity in the community
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Grey literature
information published by organizations other than commercial publishers – government reports, company brochures, conference papers, policy statements, academic theses and dissertations
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combining results from existing quantitative studies with measured outcomes – effectively increasing sample size and precision
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synthesis of a number of qualitative studies examining the same phenomenon
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the compatibility of results of one study with that of another
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Peer review
evaluations of paper by experts in that field – usually done blind to avoid bias
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Primary paper
article written by the researchers who carried out the study it describes (original research or empirical research)
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Publication bias
when published research is not representative of all completed studies in that area – often skewed towards positive results
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Secondary paper
paper that reviews several original/primary papers written by other people – no research has been carried out
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Statistical significance
the likelihood that a result is produced by more than chance – expressed through p-value less than 0.05 (more than 95 percent probability that the effect resulted from the intervention)
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Systematic review
secondary paper that answers a focused clinical question through a structured and rigorous synthesis of original studies chosen with strict and transparent inclusion and exclusion criteria
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going from the general to specific
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going from the specific to general
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Inter-rater reliability
when two or more researchers assess the data and results and give consistent estimates of the same phenomenon
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Progressive focusing
ability to review the search at various stages and adjust accordingly if required to improve the study
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examining oneself as the researcher as well as the research relationship
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the consistency and repeatability of measurement scores over time, measurement equipment and people doing the measuring
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little or no new data is generated from the participants, and it is believed the sample size is adequate
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improves validity of a study because it cross-validates data through verifying the research results through two or more sources typically through the application or combination of different research methods attempting to answer the same question
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the accuracy of a measurement – depends in part on reliability
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Dependent variable
the outcome measures expected to be affected by the interventions (independent) variable
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Descriptive research
observational studies describing and optionally comparing the characteristics or responses of a sample
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Diagnostic accuracy study
research design evaluating how well a clinical diagnostic or assessment procedure can identify the presence or absence of health condition in a sample
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Epidemiological research
study of causes and other factors affecting the occurrence of illnesses, injuries, survival and recovery
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Experimental design
interventional study involving at least one treatment group and a control or placebo group, so the effect on outcomes with or without the intervention can be compared
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Independent variable
the intervention or the treatment expected to affect the outcome (dependent) variable
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Intervention study
researchers deliberately do something with participants with the intention of causing a change
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Level of measurement
how quantitative information is recorded – according to whether only group membership (nominal scale) or ranking (ordinal scale) is identified, or whether quantities or amounts are directly measured (continuous scales)
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nominal or ordinal
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interval or ratio (more versatile levels of measurement)
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Observational study
researchers so no intervene to bring about a change but instead observe and measure events as they happen naturally
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PICO definition
developing search terms for intervention studies
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anything measurable, either categorical or continuous – can differ
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Allocation bias
systematic differences in clinical trial groups, and affecting results above and beyond treatments
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systematic, consistent error in results or conclusions from evidence
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Clinical practice guidelines
document providing evidence-based recommendation for the clinical management of patients with a known health condition
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Clinical question
an inquiry about clinical practice, ideally answered from research evidence
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organized list that can be searched by computer
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information from research that may guide practice if valid for the clinical practice
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Evidence-based practitioners
health professionals that use recent, high-quality evidence from research to inform their practice and policy decisions
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Grades of recommendations
four levels of recommendation devised by the NHMRC. Grades refer to trustworthiness of evidence for guiding practice
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ordered list, from highest (better) to lowest (not so good)
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Levels of evidence
a list of study designs matched to clinical questions, and ranked in order of potential bias
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an intervention that resembles a real treatment but should not have any therapeutic benefit. The ‘sugar-coated pill’ that looks like real medication but contains no drug is the classic example
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Primary evidence
evidence from original studies collecting data from new research published for the first time
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Secondary evidence
evidence compiled from existing, already available research results
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Selection bias
unintended group differences at the outset of a clinical confuse measured relationships between treatments and their effects
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individual members of a sample, person, place, object or event; participants in research
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Central tendency
the middle location between the highest and lowest scores on a continuous variable (mean, median, mode)
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Confidence interval
from inferential statistics, a range of values in which a population mean is estimated to fall (conventionally 95 per cent confidence)
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Correlation coefficient
statistic illustrating the strength and direction of the association between two continuous variables
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Descriptive statistics
statistics that summarize or otherwise describe the characteristics of a sample
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how spread out the scores are on a continuous variable
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quantitative science – a difference or a change that happens to one measured variable
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conclude that results from an individual or sample will apply to a larger group or population
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Hypothesis testing
using inferential statistics to estimate the probability that an effect observed in the sample is consistent with an effect, or no effect, occurring in the population
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Inferential statistics
statistics that attempt to generalize results from samples to the wider population from which the sample was taken
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Minimum important difference
the least amount of change in outcome measurements for a treatment or other intervention to be considered meaningful and worthwhile in clinical practice
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hypothesis testing – inferential statistics – the probability of the effect observed in the data if there were no effect in the population – a p-value of less than 0.05 (5 per cent) works as evidence of a non-zero effect in the relevant population
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all possible cases that could be sampled
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one case’s result on one variable (e.g. one person’s height)
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Convergent study
qualitative and quantitative arms of the study are run concurrently but separately and then the results are ‘converged’ to enable the researcher to compare and contrast quantitative results with qualitative findings, or expand quantitative results wi
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Embedded study
a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods is used throughout a study
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Mixed methods research
the planned mixing of quantitative and qualitative components within a single study
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Multiphase study
different study designs are used to answer the same question in a population that has inherently different sizes
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Sequential study
a qualitative study is conducted first, followed by a quantitative study (or vice versa)
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converting quantitative data into qualitative data
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transforming qualitative data into quantitative data
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Convenience sampling
when participants are chosen because they are ‘convenient’
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Non-probability sampling
participants are chosen in a process that does not give all participants in the population an equal chance of being selected
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Probability sampling
participants are chosen randomly from a population
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Purposive sampling
the researcher looks for cases that will be able to provide rich or in-depth information about the issue being researched
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Quota sampling
participants are chosen according to pre-specified quotas regarding demographics, attitudes, behaviors, or some other criteria
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Simple random sampling (SRS)
every participant has an equal chance of selection – statistical software or random number tables
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Snowball sampling
someone is identified who meets the criteria for inclusion in a study, and they recommend others who also meet the criteria
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Stratified random sampling
a population is divided into groups also known as ‘strata’, and then researchers continue by either implementing SRS or systematic random sampling
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a person’s information is anonymous if the information cannot identify the person because identifiers such as name, date of birth or address have been removed
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freedom to determine one’s own actions
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acting to benefit humankind
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maintenance of privileged information
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Declaration of Helsinki
the first historical document outlining ethical principles to govern research, first agreed to in 1964
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Human Research Ethics Committee
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Obligation to treat fairly
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National Health and Medical Research Council – the peak funding and policy-making body for medical research in Australia
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avoiding or minimizing harm
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the person’s right to choose and control what happens to personal information
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Clinical guidelines
systematically developed statements to assist practitioner decisions about appropriate healthcare for specific clinical circumstances
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Decision aid
evidence-based tools designed to help patients to participate in making specific and deliberated choices among healthcare options
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Integrated care pathway
a pre-defined plan of patient care relating to a specific diagnosis or intervention, with the aim of making the management more structured, consistent and efficient
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Option grid
a one-page table covering a single topic, to help patients and clinicians compare alternative treatment options
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Patient-reported outcome measure
the outcome from a research study that matter most to the patient rather than those the researchers think are most important
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the application of biological science to clinical medicine
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a theoretical viewpoint that privileges knowledge gained from the senses, particularly observation, and from experiments
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concerned with all aspects of a person’s wellbeing, including physical, psychological, spiritual and social factors
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a theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes the importance of human values, beliefs and attitudes
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official procedure or set of rules that must be followed without variation
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how consistent and repeatable a study’s results are
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how well the results of a study measure the phenomenon being researched
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EBP 5 Steps
Ask Acquire Appraise Apply Evaluate
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Population Intervention Comparison Outcome
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


accepted body of facts or ideas that is acquired through the use of senses, reasons or through research methods



Card 3


a type of study that was done over a long period of time, looking at a group of people in the past


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


allows you to set specific parameters for your results, such as year, author, title or study type. Less hits = more relevant results than basic search


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


AND (all terms), OR (either terms) and NOT (neither terms) to expand or exclude keywords in a search, results are more focused and productive


Preview of the back of card 5
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