Neuro

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  • Created by: Louisa
  • Created on: 01-06-16 11:19
Nerve Cell
Cell capable of excitation, enables transmission of impulses
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Glial Cell
Cell with supports, protects and provides nutrition
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Astrocytes
Structure and support, Maintain blood-brain barrier between CNS and general circulation, Repair neural tissue (like Satelite cells)
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Oligodendrocytes
Produce myelin in CNS
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Microglia
Phagocytotic in CNS
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Ependymal cells
Line central canal of spinal column, Produce and circulate CSF
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Satelite Cells
Structure and support neuron cell bodies in PNS (like astrocytes)
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Schwann Cells
Produce myelin in PNS
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Neurilemma
Outer surface of schwann cells which is able to regenerate slowly
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Intrafusal muscle fibers
Non-contractile, contain stretch receptors, group= spindle, Nuclear bag & Nuclear chain
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Nuclear Bag
Type of intrafusal muscle fibres, Contains Primary nerve endings which connect to 1a afferent neurones
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Nuclear Chain
Type of intrafusal muscle fibre, Contains mostly Secondary nerve endings which connect with Group 2 afferent nerve fibres, also contains some Primary nerve endings-> 1a afferent
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Ischaemic Stroke
Stroke caused by lack of blood/oxygen to the brain due to a blockage
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Transischaemic Stroke
Small stroke caused by lack of blood/oxygen due to a blockage for less then 24 hours
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Haemorrhagic
Stroke caused by bleeding in or around the brain
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Anterior Cerebral Artery
Supplies the Motor and Sensory cortex, Pre-frontal cortex (Follows Central sulcus)
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Middle Cerebral Artery
Supplies the Frontal lobe, Lateral surface of Parietal and Temporal lobes (includes Wernike's & Broca's)
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Posterior Cerebral Artery
Supplies Occipital lobe, Links carotid and vertebral blood supply
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Central Sulcus
Separates Post and Pre-central gyrus
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Lateral Fissure
Separates Temporal from Parietal and Frontal lobes
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Parietal Lobe
Sensory, Post-central gyrus contains Somatosensory cortex
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Temporal Lobe
Auditory, Temporal gyrus contains Auditory cortex
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Occipital Lobe
Visual, Contains visual cortex
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Cerebellum
Coordinates movement via error detection and influence over descending tracts
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Vestibulospinal Tracts
Influences posture and balance via muscle tone. Ipsilateral, Descending, Vestibular nuclei in pons/medulla->Ventral horn spinal cord-> Same side Limb
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Reticulospinal Tracts
Exhib/Inhib influence on muscle reflex and tone. Ipsilateral, Descending, Reticular formation in pons/medulla-> Ventral horn spinal cord-> Same side Limb
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Corticospinal Tracts
85% Contralateral, 15% Ipsilateral, Descending. Influences Voluntary and Skilled movement. Motor Cortex-> Ventral horn spinal column-> 85% decussates Pyramids-> Opp side limb (lateral tract), 15% ipsi (ventral tract)-> Same side Limb
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Corticobulbar Tracts
Influences head, neck and face movement. Descending, Ipsilateral. Cortex->Medulla via ventral horn-> Same side Face
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Rubrospinal Tracts
Influences Distal limb flexors. Descending, Contralateral. Red Nuclei in Mid-brain-> Decussates immediately-> Ventral horn Spinal Cord-> Opposite Limb
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Spinothalamic Tract
Detects Pain, Temp, Pressure, Discriminitive touch. Ascending, Contralateral. Limb-> Dorsal horn Spinal Cord->Decussates Immediately-> Thalamus-> Motor Cortex
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Spinocerebellar Tract
Detects change in Muscle Spindle Length, Ascending, ipsilateral. Limb-> Dorsal horn Spinal cord-> Pons-> Cerebellum
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Dorsal Column
Detects Proprioception and Non-discriminiative touch. Ascending, Contralateral. Limb-> Dorsal horn Spinal cord-> Fasiculi Cunateus/ Gracilis-> Decussates at Thalamus-> Motor cortex
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Ataxia
Uncoordinated movement
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Anterior and Posterior Cerebral Lobes
Associated with Neocerebellum pathway (controls muscle coordination during unstereotyped movement)
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Vermis
Associated with Paleocerbellum pathway (corrective postural activity and muscle tone)
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Flocculonodular Lobe
Associated with Archicerebellum pathway (Bilateral influence on posture)
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Neocerebellum
Peter Likes Having Dick Near Virgin Ladies Minges because they aren't coordinated. Pontine-> Lateral Hemisphere -> Dentate-> VL Thalamus-> Motor Cortex
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Paleocerebellum
Bull Shit Vaginas Get Eaten Really Rarely. Both Spinocerbellar (Dorsal & ventral)-> Vermis-> Globose and Emboliform nuclei-> Red nuclei-> Rubrospinal
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Archicellum
VR F F VR. Vestibular and Reticular Nuclei-> Flocculonodular lobe-> Fastigal Nuclei-> Vestibular and Reticular Nuclei-> Vestibular and Reticular descending pathways
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Dysarthria
Issues with speech due to facial weakness
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Cerebral Spinal Fluid
Surrounds and protects the brain & spinal cord. Acts as shock absorber, transport medium and involved in homeostasis. Located between Pia and Arachnoid matter (meninges)
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Basal Ganglia
In forebrain, Contains 5 subcortical nuclei, Controls movement, Prevents unwanted movement and Emotion
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Substantia Niagra
Pars Compacta- Releases dopamine, Pars Reticulum- Input into Striatum
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Globus Pallidus
Output from Basal Ganglia -> Thalamus
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Direct Pathway
Encourages Movement
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Indirect Pathway
Inhibits Movement
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Bradykinesia
Slow movement
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Rigidity
Increase in resistance to passive movement by flexors and extensors. 'Lead-pipe'- Gradual increase & 'Cog-wheel'- Rigidity, tremor series of catches
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Tremor
Regularly alternating involuntary movement of small amplitude
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Depolarisation
Large influx of Sodium INTO cell
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Repolarisation
Large efflux of Potassium OUT of cell
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Reticular activating system
Ascending porting of reticular formation, contains sensory axons-> thalamus-> cortex. Most important function is conciousness
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Meninges
Layers in the brain. Most superficial-> Deepest. Dura mater, Arachnoid mater, (CSF), Pia mater
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Cell with supports, protects and provides nutrition

Back

Glial Cell

Card 3

Front

Structure and support, Maintain blood-brain barrier between CNS and general circulation, Repair neural tissue (like Satelite cells)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Produce myelin in CNS

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Phagocytotic in CNS

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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