Neanderthal Cultural Behaviour

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Neanderthal Sites
Shanidar, Amud, Tabun, Engis, Neandertal, Le Moustier, Chatelperron
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Neanderthals
200-28kyrs. Europe, SW & C. Asia. Tool use, fire, shelter, clothing, hunting, symbolism
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The Paleolithic (2.6mya- 10kyr)
Early (Oldowan- 2.6-1mya) + (Acheulean- 1.7mya- 250kya), Middle (Levallois, 250-30kyr), Late (Blades etc. 40kyr-10kyr)
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Mousterian Tools & Levallois technique
Associated with Neanderthals- control over shape and size- cognitive leap?
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Aterian Tang Tools
Highly variable. Spear points? Associated with AMH
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Bordes- Binford debate
Bordes- Tool variation= different tribes; Binford- Variation= material availability, resharpening & reduction (Frison effect)
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Frison (1976)
Resharpening and reduction= variation in tool which may not be different cultures
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Villa & Roebroeks (2014)
AMH superiority complex. No evidence for inferiority of Neanderthal culture etc. Interbreeding and assimilation more likely.
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Chatelperronian
U.P. earliest industry. "modern" elements- ornaments and bone tools. Stratigraphic radiocarbon dating= neanderthals responsible (Caron et al. 2011)
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Neanderthal hunters
Survived in range of environments. Throwing/thrusting weapons. Aquatic foods, small and fast game.
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Boeda et al. (1999)
Levallois point embedded in vertebrae of wild *** = M.P game hunting in Syria
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Mezmaiskaya Cave (Russia)
Bison remains
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Stringer et al. (2008)
Deer, boar, rabbits, seals, dolphins, tortoises fish etc. all found at neanderthal sites in Gibralter
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Henry et al. (2004)
Neanderthals spacially organised themselves similarly to AMH.
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Burial
Only a few recovered. ~150kyrs @ Tabun. Mezmaiskaya Cave (Russia). Shanidar 4?
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Rendu et al. (2014)
La Chapelle-Aux-Saints burial pit with grave goods and ochre etc.
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Dibble et al. (2014)
La Chapelle-Aux-Saints has no objective evidence of a burial.
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Belfer-Cohen and Hovers (1992)
Criteria for MP. burials= 1. closed structure 2. preservation 3 .grave goods/decoration
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Evidence of compassion?
Shanidar 1. Elderly man with evidence of healed fractures in head and arm
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Symbolic expression
Perforated bones @ La Quina (70-60kya). Cranial deformation? Shanidar (46kya) = beautification?
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Perforated/cut bones?
Bilzingsleben striated marks. Perforated bones Czech Republic= gastric juices?
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Conclusion
Not just AMH with complex behaviour- but what role to H. heidelbergensis have to play?
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Card 2

Front

200-28kyrs. Europe, SW & C. Asia. Tool use, fire, shelter, clothing, hunting, symbolism

Back

Neanderthals

Card 3

Front

Early (Oldowan- 2.6-1mya) + (Acheulean- 1.7mya- 250kya), Middle (Levallois, 250-30kyr), Late (Blades etc. 40kyr-10kyr)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Associated with Neanderthals- control over shape and size- cognitive leap?

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Highly variable. Spear points? Associated with AMH

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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