Mood Disorders

Mood Disorders specification requirements 2014-2015

Unipolar and bipolar depression. Symptoms and diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar depression. Explanationa, including biological, cognitive and psychodynamic. Treatments of mood disorders, including biological and cognitive. Evaluation of these treatments. 

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  • Created by: EHardern
  • Created on: 31-03-15 15:26
What is reactive depression?
Linked to an uncontrollable loss such as the death of a close relative or unemployment.
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What is endogenous depression?
Comes from within the person, possibly due to biological factors.
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How much of the population is affected by unipolar depression?
Approximately 5% of the population.
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Which gender is unipolar depression more prevalent in?
Women.
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What ages is unipolar depression most prevalent in?
In middle and old ages.
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How many adolescents are affected?
1 in 6
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Can you recover from unipolar depression?
Yes. 50% of suffers experience one episode. Some experience several episodes in blocks or separated by years. Some recover fully while others continue to struggle in resuming relationships or continue employment.
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Emotional symptoms of unipolar depression
Sadness, depressed mood, loss of pleasure in life, short temper, irritability, feelings of guilt or worthlessness
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Cognitive symptoms of unipolar depression
Recurrent thoughts of death/suicide, diminished ability to think or concentrate, poor memory, low self esteem, hopelessness.
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Physiological symptoms of unipolar depression
Insomnia or hyposomnia nearly every day, significant weight loss when not dieting, or weight gain, fidgeting or agitation, palpatations, headaches, stomach upsets, lack ofenergy.
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Behavioural symptoms of unipolar depression
Withdrawal from social life, poor performance at work, poor personal hygiene, loss of interest in sex and intimate relationships, catatonia.
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How did Comer define unipolar depression?
A severe pattern of depression that is disabling and is not caused by factors such as drugs or a general medical condition.
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How much of the population is affected by bipolar depression?
1% of the population
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Which gender is unipolar depression more prevalent in?
Occurs equally in men and women.
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What ages is unipolar depression most prevalent in?
Disorder usually starts in late adolescence with a manic episode.
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How frequent are the episodes of mania and depression?
The person may shift between stages of depression, mania and feeling normal. The length of these vaires from person to person. Some people experience mood changes without returning back to normal states.
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What are the two phases of bipolar depression?
There are depressive stages (with the symptoms related to unipolar depression). In addition to these the sufferer experiences manic episodes.
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Emotional symptoms of the manic episodes
Feelings of euphoria, highly elevated mood states, irritability due to not getting own wayor frustration by others, lack offelings of guilt and social inhibition.
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Cognitive symptoms of the manic episodes
Delusional ideas, grandiose plans, thinking others are out to get them, reckless and irrational decision making.
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Behavioural and physiological symptoms ofmanic episodes
Less than usual amount of sleep needed, increase in activity level at work sociall and sexually, unusual talkativeness, rapid speech.
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Differences between bipolar and unipolar depression
Bipolar depression is less common + is equally frequent in both genders. People in close relationships are less likely to suffer from unipolar depression but this makes no difference in bipolar depression. Bipolar is more likely to run in families.
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Factors supporting biological explanations of mood disorders.
Somtimes occurs after physiological changes in women (e.g. birth, menopause or menstruation), similar symptoms across a variety of sufferers, drug treatment appears effective, depression can be induced as a sideeffect of some medication.
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Genetic explanation. Evidence from Gershan
Gershan (1990) reviewed 10 studies of adult unipolar depressed probands and found the rates of depression in first degree relatives was between 7%-30% which is higher than the general population (5%).
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Genetic explanation. Evidence fromWinokur
Winokur (1995) conducted a large scale study (900 patients + controls) the rate of unipolar depression was 10.4% in first-degree relatives of the probands. Compared to 4.9% of the control groups families (who are not sufferes).
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Genetic explanation. Evidence from Weissman et al.
Weissman et al (1987) found that approximatley 50% of the children of depressives display depressive symptoms themselves.
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Evalutation of Family studies for investigating mood disorders.
Families are exposed to similar environments thus it may be the environment which is causing multiple family members to suffer rather than genetics. Being raised by ill relatives may increase the likelihood of suffering rather than genetic influence.
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Twin studies.
Concordance for bipolar disorder is higher than that of the unipolar disorder with about 70% concordance for MZ twins, compared with 23% for DZ twins.
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Genetic explanation. Evidence from Egeland.
Egeland (1987) claimed to have found evidence for a genetic link to bipolar disorder in the Amish communities of Pennsylvania. This community shows a much higher incidence of the disorder. Kelsoe reanalysed the data and found methodological errors.
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Evaluation of the genetic explanation.
Much of the evidence is indirect (assumptions are made), twin studies - might be similar environment not genes causing results. Limited sample to do adoption studies. Search for single gene is difficult (many subtypes)
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Card 2

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Comes from within the person, possibly due to biological factors.

Back

What is endogenous depression?

Card 3

Front

Approximately 5% of the population.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Women.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

In middle and old ages.

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Preview of the back of card 5
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