Microbes

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What is virus replication?
Virus replication is when a virus gets into a cell, the virus genes cause the cell to make new copies of the virus.
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How often do bacteria reproduce?
Every 20 minutes
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What two microbes have some that are edible but some that are poisonous?
Bacteris and Fungus
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What microbes can be killed by antibiotics?
Bacterium and Fungus
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Using a perti dish with agar is a convenient way to grow bacteria beacuase the jelly provides what?
Food for the bacterium to grow, they also provide moisture
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Why are the dish and jelly both sterilised before use?
They are sterilised because they could already have exsiting bacteria and we don't want to grow other bacterium external from the investigation
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Why must the lid of the dish be lifted away from you as the material is placed on the jelly?
Due to bacteria can spead through the air
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What did the sample of fresh milk have more microbes than the sample of sour milk?
It had more microbes because the fresh milk had been contaminated
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What happened to the sample of fresh milk and why?
The fresh milk had over time become sour milk and the microbes had been making the conversion.
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What are the optimum conditions?
Food, Moisture, Air(it is the oxygen in the air that is needed) and warm conditions
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What microbe is used to change milk into yoghurt and cheese?
Bacterium
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What does milk contain that allows babies to feed on milk alone for the first few months in their life?
A sugar food substance called LUCTOSE and a protein food substance called CASEIN?
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What is the yoghurt making bacteria?
Lactobacillus
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What happens when lactobacillus are added to the milk?
They feed on the lactose sugar and change it into lactic acid
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The build up of the acid will change the pH of the milk. Will it increase or decrease?
Decrease
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Protein is sensitive to pH and as the acids builds up and the pH decreases, the protein coagulates. What does this mean?
The protein becomes more solid
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What two microbes are important in breaking down waste material?
Bacteria and microbes
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What do you call the microbes that are important in breaking down waste material?
They are called decomposers
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What would happen if there were not decomposers?
Without them lots of materials would build up and all the chemicals inside them would be trapped there and not avaliable for re-use
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How could the chemicals released from a composter be used?
They can be used in natrual fertillsers as they can be recycled
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What do you call the process where yeast respires even if there is no oxygen?
fermentation anaerobic
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What does yeast produce when it ferments food material?
Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide
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Which of the products from yeast makes bread rise?
Carbon Dioxide
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What is Pencillium?
a mould fungus
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What does penicillium do?
Makes the antibiotics penicillin
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What are antibiotics used for?
To kill bacteria + fungus (but only some kinds)
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What is the aim of the canning method to stop microorganisms?
Kills microorganisms - high temperatures and take away oxygen
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What is the aim of the pasteurisation method to stop microorganisms?
Kills microorganisms - high temperatures 70 degrees celcius
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What is the aim of therefrigeration method to stop microorganisms?
Slow growth of microorganisms - low temperatures 4 degrees celcius
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hat is the aim of the freeze drying method to stop microorganisms?
Slow down growth - remove water
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hat is the aim of the vacuum packing method to stop microorganisms?
Stop growth - no water or oxygen
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Why is vinegar used to kill bacteria?
Due to vinegar makes the pH too low (to acidic) for the microbes to survive?
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What is pasteurisation?
The process of killing bacteria in foods by the application of heat
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What do you nose do to defend your body against diseases?
Produces mucus which traps microbes
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A chemical in you ____ kills microbes
Tears
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What does your skin do to denfend your body against diseases?
covers your whole body which stops microbes getting in and acts as a barrier
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Cells in your _______ also produce mucus
Gillet
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What do ciliated epithelial cells do to defend your body against diseases?
Sweeps the mucus to the top of your windpipe to be swallowed
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What does your stomach contain to defend your body against diseases?
Acid which kills microbes
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What type of blood cells destroy microbes?
White
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Where do memory cells stay?
They stay in your blood in low concentration
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What are phathogens?
Microorganisms that cause diseases
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What do phagocytes do?
Phagocytes engulf bacteria, kills it and then digests it
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What do lymphoctyes do?
They carry a specific type of antibody - a protein that has a chemical 'fit' to a certain antigen
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What happens when a lymphocyte (with the appropriate antibody) meets the antigen?
The lymphocyte reproduces quickly, and makes many copies of the antibody that neutralises the pathogen.
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What are the number of different ways in which antibodies neutralise pathogens?
1. They bind to pathogens and damage or destroy them 2. they coat pathogens, clumping them together so that they are easily ingested by phagocytes 3. they bind to the pathogens and release chemical signals to attract more phagocytes
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How does the antibiotic penicillin work?
Breaks down cell walls
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What are antigen markers?
They are protein molecules that protect your body and help the immune system
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What does it mean if someone is immune to a disease?
When you recover from a disease, some antibodies stay in your blood. This means that your body is ready for that particular microbe if it infects you again, you will not get that disease again
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What does immunisation do to protect us from diseases?
It makes the body produce antibodies against a microbe
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What is a vaccine?
A vaccine is a fragment or deadened form of microorganisms that cause diseases
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Name the person first responsible for developing vaccination. What disease was he try to prevent people from?
Edward Jenner and he was trying to prevent people from smallpox
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How often do bacteria reproduce?

Back

Every 20 minutes

Card 3

Front

What two microbes have some that are edible but some that are poisonous?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What microbes can be killed by antibiotics?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Using a perti dish with agar is a convenient way to grow bacteria beacuase the jelly provides what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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