MEMORY PSYCHOLOGY

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INTRO
-explains how info flows. SM,STM,LTM are perminant structures. Info receieved from senses enter SM. attention=STM (if not forgotten). STM rehersal=LTM (more rehersal/perminant storage)
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SENSORY MEMORY
-stimuli from senses registered in SM. holds for fraction of a second. ATKINSON AND SHIFFRIN three sensory stores (different input). ICONIC= visual input, ECHONIC= auditory input, HAPTIC= tactile input.
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SM DURATION
SPERLING demostrates sm brif duration. Grid of numbers and didgits exposed for 50 milliseconds,memory of whole grid was poorer than memory of single row. Show info decay rapidly. SM is gateskeeper
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SHORT TERM MEMORY
stores info brief period. Accoustically long enough to use (eg remebering phone number)
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STM DURATION
approx 15-30 seconds. PETERSON AND PETERSON used a peterson and brown technique. Inference task to prevent rehersal of triagrams after 18 seconds. Memory was only 10%. demonstrates (as msm suggests) memory vanishes from stm unless htere is rehersal
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STM CAPACITY
JACOBS digit span technique. avaerage span for digits 9.3,7.3 for letters. easier to recall number 10 possibilities (0-9). MILLER 7+/-2 'chunks'. SIMON size of 'chunk' affect memory.COWAN chucks 7 not 4.
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STM ENCODING
mainly accoustic. CONRAD demostrated p's with letters asked to remeber, got confused with similar sounding (S/X)
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LONG TERM MEMORY
vast quantity, extended periods of time. info is diverse (personal mems,general knowledge,beliefs). not passive store, dynamic as constant revise and modification of info. retrieved into STM when needed. no upper limit to quantity
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LTM DURATION
LTM depends on how long you live.BAHRICK ET AL asked p's of various ages to put names to faces from their year book. 48 years later perople memory was 70% accurate, duration of memory was impressive because material was meaningful
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LTM ENCODING
SEMANTIC. BADDELEY study, when p's asked to recall list A ( accoustically similar and B (accoustically dissimilar) there was no difference. However large difference is list C (sematically similar) and D (semantically dissimilar).shows semantic coding
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SEPERATE STM AND LTM
evidence to show different tores. MURDOCK asked p's to recall a list of words. Words at beginning and end best remebered. Bignning memory is called primary effect (rehersal so in LTM) and end of list words called recencey effect (still in STM)
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OVERSIMPLIFIED STM
oversimplified stm is criticism. msm arguessingle store, however SHALLICE AND WARRINGTON show STM can break up into diff stores (visual and accoustic),case of KF brain damage problems with spoken letters/numbers but not with pictures. proof more stor
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OVERSIMPLIFIED LTM
research shows LTM can be devided (semantic,episodic,procedural). CLIVE WEARING could no make new memories. recognised his wife and play piano he couldnt remeber composer. reuslted in more research.
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REHERSAL
research to show rehersal isnt only way to move info . Little rehersal in everyday. BEKERIAN AND BADDELEY peopel didnt know changes in BBC wavelength, aloth heard it 1000 times.
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CONCLUSION
MSM historically important in memory research (first model that made predictions that were testable, important) led to further research of evidence to support/falsify. led to theory development,
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Card 2

Front

-stimuli from senses registered in SM. holds for fraction of a second. ATKINSON AND SHIFFRIN three sensory stores (different input). ICONIC= visual input, ECHONIC= auditory input, HAPTIC= tactile input.

Back

SENSORY MEMORY

Card 3

Front

SPERLING demostrates sm brif duration. Grid of numbers and didgits exposed for 50 milliseconds,memory of whole grid was poorer than memory of single row. Show info decay rapidly. SM is gateskeeper

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

stores info brief period. Accoustically long enough to use (eg remebering phone number)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

approx 15-30 seconds. PETERSON AND PETERSON used a peterson and brown technique. Inference task to prevent rehersal of triagrams after 18 seconds. Memory was only 10%. demonstrates (as msm suggests) memory vanishes from stm unless htere is rehersal

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