Psychodynamic Perspective- Repression. Behavioural Perspective- Learning. Cognitive Perspective- Models of Memory.
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3 stages of Processing.
Information processing occurs in three stages which are Encoding, Storage and Retrieval. This is part of the dynamic creative process. Memory is reconstructive and not photographic or like a tape recorder.
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Taking on board via the senses. Converting the information we recieve into 'something' (chemical memory trace- engram- nerve cells, fibres, neuro chemicals) that we store and retrieve. Mental representation of code.
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How memories are held. Holding information over time in preparation for when it is needed. Memory storage is an ongoing process of reclassification, constantly revising or modifying stored knowledge in light of new information.
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Storage cont.
Memories are coded temporarily by the hippocampus throughout the day and then at night while we sleep, the memories are transferred to the rest of the brain via a process called memory consolidation.
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Involves recovering stored information. Most recall occurs by association. Clues about a past mental state are activated until something coherent emerges.
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Retrieval cont.
The spontanious retrieval of memory by association is closer to a process of reconstruction than retrieval. That coherent 'recreated' memory may or may not be an accurate reproduction of the past- high errorrate of eye-witness testimony shows this.
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Engram (Memory trace).
LTM are stored thoughout the brain as groups of neurons that are primed to fire together in the same pattern that created the original experience.
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Sensory Memory.
Each sensory system has access to sensory memory- only 1/100th sensory input reaches conscious awareness. Attent to information- passed into STM- 1/20th of the information. Acts as a gate keeper- what goes on to be processed further and what is lost.
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Short Term Memory (STM).
Storage time- information remains in STM for 15-30 seconds (unless rehearsed). Capacity- between 5 and 9 items (Miller 1956) 'The magical number 7, plus or minus 2' (reviewed and thought to be 4-7). Chunked together items increases capacity.
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Increases the capacity of STM and likelihood that information will pass into the LTM- becomes meaningful. E.g. D-N-A-B-B-C-C-I-A= DNA, BBC, CIA.
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Short Term Memory (STM) cont.
Mode of storage- infor mainly stored acoustically, but can be encoded visually or semantically. Duration- Information that is not rehearsed is soon lost. Primacy and recency effect- Remember the beginning and end, but the middle is likely to be lost.
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Long Term Memory (LTM).
Capacity-Unlimited. Duration- Some memories can last forever. Mode of storage- This is mainly dependent on meaning, but can store acoustically or visually. Dynamic system- Constantly revising or modifying stored knowledge in light of new information.
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The Structural Model (Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968).
Concentrates on the structure of memory and how information flows from one structure to another. E.g. From the Sensory Store to the STM where it is either lost or rehearsed and transfered into the LTM.
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Levels of Processing Model (Craik and Lockhart 1972).
Rejects separate STM and LTM. STM and LTM is not structural but a process, it is not where it goes but what we do with it. Not rehearsal but the type of rehearsal that matters. Depth of processing that is important.
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Two types of rehearsal.
Maintenance- Repeating over and over (Actors learning lines). Elaborate- doing something with the material as it is being repeated- making associations with existing knowledge. Elabotation and distinctiveness are important for information retention.
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Levels of Processing Model cont.
Very Shallow- Consider the physical features of the word such as the number of letters it contains. Deeper Processing- Consider the acoustic features of the word, what it sounds like. Deepest Level- Consider the semantic features of the word.
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Working Memory.
Working memory has replaced STM. Holds information in 'active store' whilst it is being manipulated- process.
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The Working Memory Model (Baddeley and Hitch 1974).
Applies only to STM- sensory store and LTM remain the same. STM comprises of a number of components that work together but also independently- deal with more than one task.
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Phonological Loop.
Deals with the written and spoken word by storing sounds (briefly) and rehearsing any words currently being considered via 2 components which are the Phonological Store and the Articulatory Control System.
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Phonological Store (Inner Ear).
Perception of speech- selects the code for understanding- holds 2 secs of acoustically coded information.
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Articulatory Control System (Inner Voice).
Enables us to 'talk under our breath'- rehearse information stored in the phonological store- 4-7/5-9 for 15-30 secs- increases the chances of transfer and storage in LTM.
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Visuospatial Sketchpad (Inner Eye).
Allows us to hold mental pictures temporarily- limited capacity. Visual and spatial information-shape,size,colour distance. Also enables us to manipulate images. Displays and manipulate information held in LTM.Can handle more than one task at a time.
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Central Executive- Central Control System.
Recieves informationfrom sketchpad, the phonological loop, perceptions and LTM. Gate Keeper- 'Boss of slave systems'. Involved in any task that requires or makes cognitive demands. Limited capacity. Modality free- Has to manipulate all types of info.
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Types of LTM.
Procedural memories- 'Knowing how' e.g. to ride a bike. Declaritive memories- 'Knowing that'(divided into smeantic and episodic). Semanic memories-facts, rules, concepts, language e.g. timestables. Episodic memories- for personal events e.g. wedding.
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Retriving memories from LTM.
Reconstructive dynamic process. Stores 'bits and bobs' of entire experience- different parts of the brain. Reconstruct memories- therefore we often remember things incorrectly. Brain fills in information- inference, speculation, info after the event.
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Two classifications of memory loss, Underlying Physical Trauma (organic amnesia) and loss caused by emotional trauma (Psychogenic amnesia).
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Forgetting cont.
Two ways of forgetting, Availability- Memories are not available for retrieval- not encoded or stored in LTM. Accessability- Memories are stored in LTM but cannot be accessed or located.
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Availabilty- Trace Decay and Displacement.
TD- New information leaves a delicate physiological trace in the brain due to activation of neurons. Remains in STM for about 30 seconds before it decays unless it is maintained. Displacement- Once STM is full (magic 7), new info displaces the old.
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Inference- Retrieval (Context, Cue, State Dependent, Mood Dependent). We forget because of competition from new material- the information is in memory but becomes confused with new info.
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Accessability- Interference.
Two types of interference, Proactive Interference- Prior learning has interfered- Old postcode stops you from remembering new postcode. Reactive Interference- Later learning has interfered- new telephone number stops you from remembering old number.
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Lack of Consolidation.
Process of modifying and changing brain cells (neurons) when you learn new information is called Consolidation. Recently formed memories that are being consolidated are especially vulnerable to interference and forgetting.
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Remembering in LTM.
Memories can often come 'flooding back'- Context (place e.g. old home) and Cues (e.g. old photograph) related to memories when they are laid down influence their retrieval at a later date.
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Forgetting from LTM- Accessability.
'Tip of tongue' main cause of forgetting in LTM-Context/Cue Dependent Forgetting. Recall can also be impaired when we try to remember something when in a different mood/state to when the memory was encoded and stored- Mood/State Dependant Forgetting.
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Retrograde, Anterograde and Complete Anterograde Amnesia.
Retrograde- Loss of memory for events PRIOR to physical trauma occuring. Anterograde- Loss of memory for events AFTER physical trauma has occured. Complete Anterograde- unable to form new memories but previous memories before trauma are unaffected.
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Sometimes retrieved material is altered- fill in the gaos in order to make sense of events that are patially remembered- confabulation- make up a memory.
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Sometimes retrieved material is altered- fill in the gaos in order to make sense of events that are patially remembered- confabulation- make up a memory.
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Card 2


3 stages of Processing.


Information processing occurs in three stages which are Encoding, Storage and Retrieval. This is part of the dynamic creative process. Memory is reconstructive and not photographic or like a tape recorder.

Card 3




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Card 4




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Card 5


Storage cont.


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