Medicine through Time-Key Individuals

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Hippocrates-Ancient
Created the theory of the four humors, hippocratic oath , healthy lifestyle, blood letting. D&I
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Aristotle-Ancient
Greek philosopher. Recognized importance of the heart(place of heat) and brain(refrigerator). Studied connection between heart and blood vessels D&I S&A
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Galen -Ancient
Developed theory of the four humors, treatment of opposites, blood letting, dissected pigs and apes, proved brain controlled speech. Had support of church and emperor. D&I S&A
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Ibn Al Nafis-Early Medieval and Islamic
Proved Galen's theory of how the heart worked was wrong and didn't move from left to right via invisible pores and circulated around the body via invisible pores. People ignored his works. S&A
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Ibn Sina-Early Medieval and Islamic
Produced an encyclopedia of medicine called 'al-Qanun'. A million word summary of the whole medical knowledge. D&I S&A
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Rhazes-Early Medieval and Islamic
Built one of the first hospitals in Baghdad. He hung meat in different areas to see how they decayed. Found difference between smallpox and measles. Translated Greek and Roman ideas, wrote over 200 books. D&I S&A
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Amboise Pare-Renassiance
Changed the treatment of gunshot wounds. Replaced the use of boiling oil with a mix of eggs yolk, oil of roses and turpentine. He used ligeratures to seal wounds instead of cauterisation. S&A
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Andreas Vesalius-Renaissance
Produced the first comprehensive, fully illustrated anatomical textbook, proved the jaw had one part not two and that the kidneys weren't on top of each other. S&A
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Paracelcus-Renaissance
Rejected Galen's idea of the four humors causing diseased. Thought diseases were caused by chemicals and should be caused by chemicals. D&I
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William Harvey-Renaissance
Dissected animals and plants keeping detailed notes. Proved that the heart pumps blood in one direction around the body. S&A
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Jenner-Industrial
Created the first vaccination for smallpox. Faced lots of opposition due to religious view and he couldn't prove it. D&I
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Pasteur-Industrial
Showed that germs caused silkworms. Discovered how vaccines worked. Found the cause of chicken cholera and the vaccination for rabies, dipheria and tuberculosis. D&I
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Koch-Industrial
Discovered that some coloured dyes were attracted to certain bacterium. Found the cause of tuberculosis. Final proof that germs caused human diseases. D&I
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Lister-Industrial
Showed that infection after surgery was caused by germs. Used carbolic acid and soaked his instruments. S&A
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Simpson-Industrial
Used chloroform to ease the pain of childbirth. He preferred it to ether which irritated a patient's lungs and gave off an inflammable gas. Later used for general surgery. S&A
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Halstead-Industrial
Developed rubber gloves to stop the spreading of diseases. later introduced surgical masks. S&A
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Snow-Industrial
Discovered the cause of cholera was not miasma but a cesspool leaking into water. Replaced the bad pumps. PH
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Chadwick-Industrial
Published his 'report on the sanitary conditions of the labouring population'. Showed towns were overcrowded and unhygienic. PH
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Ehrlich-Modern
Found the first chemical cure for a disease. Called 'magic bullet' because it went straight to the harmful gene and destroyed it. D&I
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Fleming-Modern
Discovered the use of penicillin in a mold in a petri dish. In 1928 experimented on different cells. D&I
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Florey & Chain-Modern
Developed pure penicillin and the mass production. D&I
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Crick & Watson-Modern
Discovered the 'double helix' structure of DNA and proved that it was present in every human cell. D&I
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McIndoe-Modern
Worked as a surgeon during the war. Did psychological and physical rehabilitation. Lent money to soldiers to help them start a civil life and wanted higher pay for soldiers. S&A
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Barnard-Modern
World's first heart transplant however the patient died after just 18 days. S&A
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Rowntree-Modern
Introduced the first old age pension and national health insurance. Became the prime minister in 1916 during WW1. he also produced studies on the lives of the working class. PH
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Lloyd George-Modern
Introduced free health aid so poorer people were looked after better. Politician. PH
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Beverage-Modern
Recommended setting up a national health service and people should pay for it from their wages. PH
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Bevan-Modern
Understood poverty and sickness. Brought in the NHS and overcame opposition from doctors.
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Blackwell-Women
Had to go to America to qualify as a doctor. When she returned to England she had to be allowed to be a doctor. Only woman on official list of doctors. Encouraged and inspired women.
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Anderson-Women
Wasn't accepted to any university medical school, attended medical lectures and worked as a nurse but had to stop when male students objected. Eventually received her license to dispense medicines. Women were then banned from qualifying.
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Anderson Continued
Got degree from France however British medical authorities wouldn't accept it.
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Octavia Hill-Women
Pushed for fair rent and access to open space for poor tenants and campaigned against building on existing woodland. Bought slums and made them into healthy homes.
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Florence Nightingale-Women
Trained as a nurse in Germany. Took control of main military hospital at Scutari. Cleaned hospital and got part of it rebuilt. Set up Nightingale training school for nurses in London with money she raised. Published notes on nursing.
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Mary Seacole-Women
Skilled healer and midwife. Set up British hotel near Barcelona to provide food and drinks for soldiers. Treated the sick and nursed the wounded on the battlefield. Attempted to raise money back in Britain but was unsuccessful.
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Card 2

Front

Greek philosopher. Recognized importance of the heart(place of heat) and brain(refrigerator). Studied connection between heart and blood vessels D&I S&A

Back

Aristotle-Ancient

Card 3

Front

Developed theory of the four humors, treatment of opposites, blood letting, dissected pigs and apes, proved brain controlled speech. Had support of church and emperor. D&I S&A

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Proved Galen's theory of how the heart worked was wrong and didn't move from left to right via invisible pores and circulated around the body via invisible pores. People ignored his works. S&A

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Produced an encyclopedia of medicine called 'al-Qanun'. A million word summary of the whole medical knowledge. D&I S&A

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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