Media theory

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Roland Barthes Enigma code (narrative theory)
Prompts an audience question to be answered later
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Enigmatic code (narrative theory)
A plot filled with mysteries and false leads, usually ends in answers to these questions
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Symbolic code - Binary oppositions (narrative theory)
E.g. good and evil, hero vs. villian, light vs. dark, rich vs. poor, savage vs. civilisation
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Propp's character archetypes (narrative theory)
Narrative theory in the form of: a Villian, hero, donor, princess, father of the princess, the false hero
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Vogler's narrative theory
The hero's journey throughout the narrative, how they develop as a character
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Todorov's Theory of Equilibrium (narrative theory)
Beginning everything is good and fine, then something happens to distrupt the peace, the protagonist goes on a journey to restore something, faces a villian/battle, achieves equilibrium (peace) again at the end
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Crowden, La Fever and Viders - Hero achetypes (narrative theory)
These describe the character attitudes or personalities rather than their function (Propp) ie. the chief, the bad boy, the professor, the best friend, the charmer, the lost soul, the swashbuckler, the warrior
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Goodwin's narrative theory (for music videos)
Illustration, amplification,contradictory, motifs/iconography, close-ups of lip-syncing, voyeurism (men and women presented in a sexual way), intertextuality (reference to other media texts)
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Maslow's heirarchy of needs (audience theory)
Basic needs: physiological e.g. air, sleep, food, water - Safety and security, Love and belonging, Esteem - reputation, status - Self-actualisation ie. personal fulfilment, morality, creativity, lack of prejudice
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Demographics (defines audience by the work they do)
E = unemployed, D= semi-skilled/un-skilled workers, C2=Skilled workers, tradespersons, C1=office supervisors, junior mangaers, nurses etc. B= middle management, teachers, 'creatives' e.g. graphic designers etc. A= top management, bankers, lawyers
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Psychographics (audience)
Describes an audience's personality or behaviour traits. These are: Mainstreamers, aspirers, succeeders, resigned, explorers, strugglers, reformers
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Technical codes
e.g. camerawork, lighting, editing and sound, graphic design, interactive media
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Barthes
Denotation: what you can see, connotation: what it means e.g. The actor/actress is denoted as wearing black clothes, this connotes that she is villianious, or that she is going to a funeral
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Different representations of people in the media
Gender, ethnicity, age, issues (e.g. knife crime, size zero), events (e.g. royal wedding, olympics and paralympics), regional and national identities (welsh, scottish, irish, essex, north, south etc.)
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What affects audience response
social and cultural background, age, context of the media text, active and pssive users of media (reception theory), polysemic readings of different texts
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Reception theory
An audience finds different meanings in texts, reflecting their own lives, cultural backgrounds etc, rather than the text itself
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Visual codes
Costume, lighting, acting style, mise-en-scene & iconography, ideologies, colour, text
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Audio codes
Diegetic sound (part of the scene) e.g. natural sounds, actors speaking - non-diegetic sound (put on through editing) e.g. narrator voice, dramatic music, emphasised sounds like a door slam etc.
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Technical codes
Camera shots, special effects and editing
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Magazine terminology
Strapline, masthead, eyeline of the model, font design, sell line, cover image, conventions, ideology, balance of three colour design, puff, bar code, date, price, glamour/studio shot, mode of address, main feature article, anchorage, article
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Poster teminology
Iconography, font, star image, star credits, billing block, title block, star in character, tag-line, reviews, layout/composition, title block, artwork/key art (not always applicable)
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Newspaper terminology
Masthead, broadsheet/tabloid, skyline, strapline, headline, byline, body text, side bar, font (usually serif), columns, menu, caption, pull quote, studio shot, WoB, strapline, puff
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The Uses and Gratifications Audience Model: Blumer and Katz (1975)
Four sections: Information and education, personal identity - compare your life to celebrity/real life situation, Personal relationships/social interaction, Entertainment and diversion - escapism
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Narrative
A fictional text that can be predictable
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Mise-en-scene
Everything included in a shot
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Iconography
The objects, costumes and backgrounds associated with a particular genre e.g. hospital dramas include doctors, nurses, operations, patients etc.
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Anchorage
Images without words are open texts, connotations are left to the audience - texts are polysemic
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Ideology
The views/opinions of a media instituion (company) that is denoted through style of clothes, text, mis-en-scene etc.
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Generic types (males) - combination of stereotypes and archetypes - think Gavin and Stacey
Delusional male, grumpy old man, stay at home son, lazy slacker, down-trodden husband, the lad, camp man
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Generic types (female)
The nagging, domineering woman, the domestically incompetent woman, the dumb blonde, the social snob, the tart, the unattractive spinster, the 'unruly' woman, the rebellious/clever daughter, the dotty old lady
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Galtung and Ruge - news values (original)
Frequency, threshold, unambiguity,meaningfulness, consonance, unexpectedness, continuity, composition, elite nations, elite people, personalisation, negativity
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Tony Harcup's news values (newer version of values)
The power elite, celebrity, entertainment, surprise, bad news, good news, magnitude, relevance, follow-ups, news agenda
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Camera techniques
LS, establishing shot, close-up, POV shot, two-shot, selective focus, soft focus, tilted shot, zoom, following pan, surveying pan, tilt, crane, tracking (dollying), hand-held camera
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A plot filled with mysteries and false leads, usually ends in answers to these questions

Back

Enigmatic code (narrative theory)

Card 3

Front

E.g. good and evil, hero vs. villian, light vs. dark, rich vs. poor, savage vs. civilisation

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Narrative theory in the form of: a Villian, hero, donor, princess, father of the princess, the false hero

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The hero's journey throughout the narrative, how they develop as a character

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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