Media psychology

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  • Created on: 09-06-14 12:11
Kunkel et al. (A01)
Content analysis, 2/3 of children's programmes sampled contained at least one act of violence
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Greenberg
Equivalent number of prosocial and antisocial acts in any hour
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Woodard
US programmes for preschool children did have high levels of proscial content; 77% had t least one prosocial lesson. However only 4/20 top watched TV shows for under 17s contained any sort of prosocial behaviour
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Poulos et al
Young children who watched an episode of Lassie where a child rescued a dog were more likely to help puppies in distress than children who watched a neutral TV programme. Children who saw prosocial content behaved more altruistically
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Mares and Woodard
Most affected when they are shown the exact steps for positive behaviour, such as being shown someone donate tokens. Remember concrete acts rather than abstract ones.
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Johnston and Etterna
Largest effects were found when the programme was viewed in the classroom and accompanied by teacher led discussion
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Rubenstein and Sprafkin
In a study of adolescents hospitalised for psychiatric problems, found that post-viewing discussion led to decreased altruism
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Mares
Despite expectations, the meta-analysis found that the weakest affected by positive content was adolescent and the strongest primary school children
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Valkenburg et al.
Suggested only some forms of parental mediation would be effective in enhancing prosocial messages in TV.
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Phillips
Examined crime stats after 10 day period following a boxing contest and found there was a rise in the number of murders
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Bandura
Bandura's research supports the view that children learn specific acts of aggression through imitating models
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Josephson
Hockey players were deliberately frustrated and then shown a violent or non-violent film. In next hockey game behaved more aggressively with violent film and ref holding walkie talkie like in the film- cue for aggression
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Cumberbatch
People might get used to on screen violence but doesn't mean they'll use violence in the real world
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Liss and Reinhardt
Many have mixed prosocial and antisocial. Suggested negative effects in programme support the concept of justification- use of violence by a good guy gives more justification that violence is okay or 'for the cause'
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Belson
Gave an interview. Those who watched less TV were less aggressive, but those who watched the most were 50% less aggressive than those who watched moderately- link is unpredictable
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Charlton et al
St Helena natural study. Introduction of TV in 1995 would increase, however little change for prosocial or anti-social. What did change was even split- 5 decreases in prosocial in boys and girls, 2 increases in boys. Antisocial scores lower in 2
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Morton and Campbell
Examined effects of source information. Children mean age ten received information abut an unfamiliar child with autism from different sources, like teacher, parent or doctor. Most favourable attitudes when information provided by extra-familial
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Lewis et al.
Drink-driving questionnaires, first assessing pre-exposure attitudes and the second 2-4 weeks later. Although fear arousing messages were more persuasive immediately after, long-term attitude change positive better
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Igatau et al.
Efficient dealing with low involvement with message in entertainment? Story on AIDS prevention. Better quality of fictional story, more cognitive processing, more favourable attitudes. Audience factors don't exist independently to message factor
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Haugtevedt et al
Supported claims that central route is more effective for high NC individuals. Attitude change in high NC were based more on an evaluation of product attributed in ads
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Vidrine et al
Relative factor in everyday life. Students exposed to facts based or emotion based smocking risk- high NC individuals more influenced by facts
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Sistrunk and McDavid
Women more easily persuaded because in most cases topic used were one men more familiar with- otherwise wouldn't be so susceptible
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Maltby et al (A01)
Found over 1/3 of a combined sample of students and workers scored above the midpoints of the three subscales of the CAS. Later study of 18-47 year old, 15% ES, 5% IP and 2% BP
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Fischer and Cullen, Finn (A01)
Surveyed over 4000 female undergraduates, 13% reported having being cyberstalked. 15% received emails/messages that were insulting, harassing or threatening
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Cheung and Yue
Teenagers who worshipped those they came into regular contact with had higher self-esteem and educational achievement than those who did celebrities
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Maltby (Celebrity worship)
In comparing participant scores on religiosity measures against CAS scored, religiosity increasing for both men and women decreased celebrity worship
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Dressing et al
Postal survey in Germany discovered 11.5% had been the victim of a stalker. Most of the victims women and the stalkers men
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Toshin
Stalking due to insecure attachment? Measured stalker retrospective childhood and current attachment. Stalkers had more evidence of insecure adult attachment styles than control groups
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Sheridan and Grant
Cyberstalking provides less reinforcement than traditional forms because in RL stalking they can observe impact of behaviour- could need more extreme activities
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Alexy et al.
Gave student discription of a real life cyberstalking case. 30% said it was stalking even though it was a serious case that led to prosecution
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Mullen et al.
Investigated behaviour of stalkers. Five kinds of stalker- rejected (physical assault, personality), intimacy-seeking (delusional disorders), incompetent (impaired socially), resentful (make threats/property damage), predator (physical assault)
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Sood and Rogers
More socially active and motivated more likely to have parasocial relationship than those who are not
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Perse and Rubin
Study of parasocial relationships with soap-opera characters that because they were exposed to same character over and over, one benefit is a perceived reduction in uncertain about social relationships
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Derrick
Evaluated self-esteem, parasocial and perceived discrepancies between ideal and actual self. Low self esteem saw favourite as similar to ideal selves but those with high similar to actual selves. After writing an essay low felt closer to ideal selves
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Maltby et al. (Absorption-Addiction model)
Used the EPQ to assess relationship between level of celebrity and personality. ES- Extraversion, IP-neuroticism. Related to anxiety and depression
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Shiraishi et al
Discovered an enzyme correlated with novelty-seeking tendancies. Genetic differences produced different MAOA enzymes. One form of enzyme associated with higher scores of novelty seeking- genetic link for neophilia?
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De Becker
Surveyed 800 to test evolutionary ex. for celebrity gossip. Reported gossip as a useful way to get information about group members. Media exposure strong predictor of interest in celebrities. Media exposure-->believing in social network
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Gentile and Stone
Short term increase in level of physiological arousal, hostile feelings and aggressive behaviour following violent game play compared to non-violent
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Anderson et al
430 7-9 year olds at 2 points during school year. High exposure to violent games more verbally and physically aggressive and less prosocial
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Charles
Use focus group/interview to investigate facebook of 200 Scottish undergards. 12% anxiety linked to their use of social networking. Stress from deleting unwanted contacts, 32% guilt at rejecting friend requests, 10% dislike receiving
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Greitmeyer and Osswald
Demonstrated participant who played prosocial 'lemmings' susequently displayed more social behaviour than aggressive 'Lamers' or neutral Tetris. Pencil cup knocked over- 67% prosocial, 33% neutral and 28% of aggressive helped
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Lenhart et al
Large scale survey to check influence of multiplayer game on social commitment. 64% who played multiplayer committed to civic participation, 36% tried to persuade others how to vote in an election compared to 19%. More committed and polite
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Gonzales and Hancock
Facebook has positive influence on self-esteem because of positive feedback. US uni. 3 minutes to look at facebook, mirror or do nothing. Those who interacted gave much more positive feedback.
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Karpinski
Majority of uni students who use facebook underachieve by as much as a grade, and 1-5 hours studying compared to 11.
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Greitmeyer and Osswald (positive)
85% have violence. Content of prosocial games can cause positive behavioural shifts, however these sorts of games are less attractive
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Walther
Hyperpersonal model. Self-selection of information we choose to represent ourselves can have positive influence on sel-esteem.
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Holmes et al.
Tetris reduces flashbacks after trauma. Traumatic images of personal injury shown,, then 10 minutes tetris, pub quiz or nothing. In second wait, 4 hour gap. In both tetris had fewer flash backs. Effective if in four hour window- same senses needed
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O'Mahony and Meenaghan (A01)
In general celebrities not overly convincing of believable, with credibility and expertise being more important
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Martin
In a meta-analysis of studies found a strong positive correlationbetween age and understanding of persuasive intention. Older children could discriminate ad-programming better and trusted less
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Alden and Crowley (A01)
Brand recall is poorer for sexual adverts than for neutral ones
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Bushman
Tested whether sex/violence increased/decreased persuasiveness. Violent, sexual or neutral programme, 45 minutes with 3 breaks and 3 ads, asked to recall. Less likely to remember bran when in violent/sexual programme, violent adds least persuasive
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Pine and Nash
Studied children's christmas gift requests in US and Sweden (under 12 ads banned), fewer gift requests in Sweden. Also stronger for children who watched TV on their own
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Scharrer et al)
Men are shown as authority and dominant, and incompetent when attempting non-traditional gender roles Reinforces women as caretakers, wives
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Okazaki et al
75 meta-analysis to see if hard/soft more persuasive. Soft-sell focus on generating positive emotions so associated with more positive attitude towards product. Hard-sell greater capacity to irritate viewers by being more confrontational
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Martin et al.
Student participants were more convinced by tv endorsement from fellow fictional student than celebrity
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Comstock and Scharrer
80% leave room, or fast forwarded adverts
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Erfgen
Research on persuasiveness focuses more on celebrity characteristics and less on characteristics of message communicated
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Card 2

Front

Equivalent number of prosocial and antisocial acts in any hour

Back

Greenberg

Card 3

Front

US programmes for preschool children did have high levels of proscial content; 77% had t least one prosocial lesson. However only 4/20 top watched TV shows for under 17s contained any sort of prosocial behaviour

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Young children who watched an episode of Lassie where a child rescued a dog were more likely to help puppies in distress than children who watched a neutral TV programme. Children who saw prosocial content behaved more altruistically

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Most affected when they are shown the exact steps for positive behaviour, such as being shown someone donate tokens. Remember concrete acts rather than abstract ones.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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