Media psychology

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What is publication bias in media influences on behaviour?
There's much media coverage of high prevalence of violent acts shown on TV, and how exposure to these can have neg effects eq Collumbine massacre
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What does skinner believe?
We learn by reward and punishment, those that are rewarded are repeated.
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What did Austin state?
To affect learning, parent mediation is required
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What does successful parent mediation involve?
Discussion of the issues raised in a programme and follow up concepts presented in the programme
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What is cognitive priming?
Aggressive ideas shown in media can spark other aggressive thoughts, after watching a violent film the viewer is primed to respond aggressivel bcos a network of aggressive memories are retrieved
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What may frequent exposure to violent scenes cause?
To store scripts for aggressive behaviour in their memories and these may be recalled in a later situation if any aspect of the original situation is present, even is superficial
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What is justification?
Aggressive behaviour shown in the media is often portrayed as acceptable behaviour
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When are people more likely to accept a message?
If it is sponsored or condoned by someone they respect and admire
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What could watching violent films suggest to children?
That the sort of violence is acceptable behaviour within society, especially if the movie stars seen as a role model eq a hero
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What is routine activity?(AO2)
Watching TV is likely to decrease violence in society bcos people are so busy watching TV they have less time to interact and be violent
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How much time was it found that children do something else when watching TV?
50% of the time, so pay little attention to what is going on screen
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What did Cumberbatch state was a problem with research into antisocial behaviour?
Research is filtered before released to public, there is publication bias bcos they wont publish research showing that violent media causes violence in real life
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What did Katrine find?
Majority of those who listed Sims as a fave game said they learned about social issues whilst playing the game
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How many video games did Greitmeyer and Oswald find have some form of violence in them?
85%
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What does this show?
People are more likely to be exposed to violent games and may offset the positive effects
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Why can longitudinal studies have validity problems?
They may have been exposed to other forms of media violence apart from the video game, eg real life violence eq the news, so cant claim it is solely bcos the games
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What is included in the Central route?
Permanent change, Motive to think about message, Focus on quality of arguements and Lead to a lasting attitude change
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What is included in the peripheral route?
Temporary change, Not motivated to think about message, Focus on peripheral factors and Temporary attitude change
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What are the 3 components of attitude?
Affective (emotional), Behavioural and Cognitive
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What is a problem with use of attitudes?
Can't be observed or measured directly, so they use research such as questionnaires and surveys
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Why is there historical bias in some of the research into persuasion?
Most was done in the early 1950's & 60's, to examine the factors that influence war time propoganda
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Who discovered the Hovland-Yale model?
Carl Hovland who was a researcher at yale
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What does the Hovland Yale model concentrate on?
1. Source or communicator(Who is it that is seeking to persuade us) 2.The message 3.The medium (How the message is conveyed) 4.Target population
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What did Baron & Byrne suggest?
Adverts are more successful is they put someone in a white coat to emphasise the scientific status of the message
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Why do advert use celebrities such as Tiger woods to promote?
Brings credibility, status and attractiveness to the product, making it look a higher status
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What are differnt audience attributes?
Intelligence, personality & gender
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Why does intelligence affect the degree of persuasion?
May increase peoples understanding of message, and can spot weak points in the message. Less intelligent people may not fully understand the message but still agree
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What did Petty & Cacioppo suggest?
2 different routes to persuasion depending on whether the audience is likely to focus on the message itself or other factors
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How can the Lin et al research help marketing executives?
Highlights the importance of getting as many reviews as possible for a low need cognition audience
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Why can our mood effect the extent to which we are effected by a message?
The attitudes may reflect other external factors such as the weather, rather than the content of the message
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Why does fear arousal seem to be effective?
If the message provides a way of coping with the fear and if they believe the dire warnings will effect them
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What are the 3 criteria for fear in the message?
Fear, Solution, Relevance
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How can repeated exposure to the message persuade people?
Repeated exposure of individuals to a stimulus is a sufficient condition for the enhancement of his attitude towards it, given time we can grow to like most things
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How can the medium or channel effect persuasion?
How complex the message is and who the target audience is, is important
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What ways are more successful?
Face to face - interactions seem to be a good way because the message is tailored to them or mass communication because it can persuade a lot of people at the same time and more complicated messages better printed so can re read and recap material
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What kinds of people are more likely to form para social relationships at a deeper level?
Insecure resistant are more clingy and needy form them deeper because they can't be rejected
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What kind of fans are more absorbed in a celebrities life?
One with a weak sense of personal identity or poor adjustment may absorb themselves in a celebs life to gain stronger sense of identity
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What did McCutcheon state?
PSRs compensate for defects or lacks within their own lives, allows escape from reality and gain a sense of personal identity and achieve a sense of fulfilment
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What does the absorption addiction model predict?
There will be an association between poorer mental health and the strength of parasocial relationships
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What did McCutcheon produce to test this?
The Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS)
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What does the CAS do?
Measures 23 attitudes on celebs into 3 levels
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What are the 3 levels of CAS?
Entertainment-social, Intense-personal and Borderline-pathological
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What is the entertainment-social level?
Talk with friends about celebs and gossip
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What is the intense-personal level?
Intense feelings for celebs, can be obsessed
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What is borderline-pathological?
Potentially harmful aspects of feelings for celebs, can lead to uncontrollable behaviour eq stalking
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What is psychosis?
Where lose contact with reality
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Why is a para social relationship seen as evolutionary?
At some point in our ancestal history, it was adaptive to our survival and passed on through sexual selection
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Why is it seen as successful?
The ability to copy others who show a successful behaviour allows us to gain some of the advantages possessed by them
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Why do people form para social relationships with celebs?
They have valuable resources such as a career or being smart
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Why might exchanging social info about other group members have been adaptive for our ancestors?
When they started living in larger social groups
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What did Debacker suggest?
Gossip created bonds within social groups and helps to initiate and maintain alliances, as well as functions to construct and manipulatereputations, particularly those of rivals and exchange info about potential mates
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What did Barkow suggest?
Suggests that our minds are fooled into regarding media characters as being members of our social network, thus celebrities trigger the same gossip mechanisms that have evolved to keep up with the affairs of in group members
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Why is it natural for humans to look up to successful people?
Our ancestors respected good hunters and the elderly, hunting is no longer essential so we look up to those with fame and fortune
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Why are sexual selection explanations arbitrary?
They argue traits are preffered simply bcos they would have been attractive,
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What does this not explain?
An adaptive reason why traits such as music and art would have been attractive to ancestral members of the opposite sex
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Why is there a nature vs neurture arguement for attraction of celebs?
Unsure whether it is learnt in SLT rather than it being in our nature
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Why is it difficult to test?
It is non falsifyable so need to use things such as questionnaires and surveys to test it which are not completely reliable
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What is the absorption addiction model?
Fans with a weaker sense of personal identity or poor adjustment may 'absorb' themselves in a celebs life to gain stronger sense of identity
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What did McCutcheon believe?
PSRs compensate for defects or lacks within their own lives, allows to escape from reality and gain a sense of personal identity and achieve a sense of fulfillment
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What does the model predict?
There will be an association between poorer mental health and the strength of parasocial relationships
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What did McCutcheon devise?
The Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS)
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What does the CAS measure?
23 attitudes on celebs into 3 levels
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What are the 3 levels?
Entertainment-social, Intense-personal, Borderline-pathological
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What is entertainment social?
Talk to friends about celeb gossip
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What is intense-personal?
Intensity of feelings for celebs can be obsessive
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What is pathological?
Potentially harmful aspects of feelings for celebs can lead to uncontrollable behaviour eq stalking
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What is the most common type of stalking?
People who stalk us who we know eq boyfriend or someone you've met briefly but think more of it
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What is love obsession?
A fixation with a celeb whom they have no personal relationship, as they're unable to develop normal personal relatinships through conventional means they retreat into a life of fantasy relationships with individs they hardly know
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What did McCann state in the attachment style theory
Theory proposes that an insecure attachment leads to an increased interest in celebrities as it makes no demand and do not involve critism or rejection
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Why is there a problem with correlational data in research into attachment style?
Cant be certain insecure resistant leads to stalking and may be a risk factor for stalking because id every insecure resistant person was a stalker there'd be more
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Why is there a problem with retrospective data with research into attachment style?
Trying to remember what a relationship was like when younger is hard and a perception may have changed as got older so the link may just be coincidental
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Why is there ethical problems with research into the CAS scale?
If they find someone who could be a stalker or Borderline-pathological there is a duty of care to others, so we need to tell people about this, and tell them in the consent form - this could then cause problems such as people not answering honestly
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How does religiosity effect celebrity worship?
Religion is negatively correlated with celebrity worship because in Christianity it forbids the worship of anyone other than god, this indicates we have an innate need to worship someone
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What is hard sell advertising?
Central route, low self monitoring, need to present more factual info about product
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What is soft sell advertising?
Peripheral route, high self monitoring, need to use more creative techniques
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What percentage of adverts did Fowles estimate in the 90's used celebrity endorsement?
20%
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What did Giles suggest?
Celebs provide a familiar face and reliable source of info we feel we can trust bcos PSRs were built up with celebs
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What is the importance of congruence?
How well things fit together
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What is pester power?
Commonly accepted belief that advertising to young children increases the degree at which the children pester their parents for products on the product
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What did Pine & Nash find?
A strong positive correlation between amount of commercial TV watched and the number of advertised items on childrens lists to Santa
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Why is there a problem in how we measure the persuasiveness of advertising?
Typically measures how much viewers like a product after viewing or measure their intention to buy, but for an advert to be persuasive it should lead to an actual purchase of the product
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What did Giles point out about TV and cinema advertising?
Cinema advertising is more successful because they have a captive audience, where as TV audiences have more options open to them
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What did Scharrer find?
80% of viewers are likely to leave the room when an advert comes on and when recorded the fast forward them - missing their impact
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What does skinner believe?

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We learn by reward and punishment, those that are rewarded are repeated.

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What did Austin state?

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What does successful parent mediation involve?

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What is cognitive priming?

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