Media and Crime

Media representations of Crime
4 or 6 marker
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What did Erikson et al (1991) find what percentage of Toronto news was about deveiance?
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Who found that British Newplasers devote 30% of their news space to Crime?
Williams and Dickinson (1993)
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Examples of the distorted view of crime
Media over-represent violent and sexual crime, the media portray victims as older and more M/C, exaggerates police success, exaggerate the risk of victimization, Crime is reported as a series of separate events, Media overplay extraordinary crimes
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What 2 types of crime do the Media over-represent ?
Violent and sexual
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How many more times does Marsh (1991) believe a violent crime was more likely to be reported than property crime?
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Who do the media protray the victims of crimes as what group?
older and Middle class
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However, what do official statistics suggest who are more likely to be victims of crime?
W/C males age 18-24
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do the media exaggerate police success?
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Why do the media want to present the police in a good light?
They are a major source of information
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What groups does the media exaggerate the risk of victimization?
women, white women and those of high status
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What type of events do the media report crime as?
a series of separate events
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Consequently, what is not examined?
the underlying causes of crime
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What are the types of causes that are not examined? (marxism)
poverty, capitalism and Alienation
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The media overplay extraordinary crimes, what does Felson refer to this as?
'Dramatic fallacy'
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Crime is socially constructed
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Why does the media paint a distorted view of crime?
potential stories are selected while others are rejected and thus, effecutbg the outcome of the social process
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What 2 sociologists claim the news is not discovered but manufactured?
Cohen and Young
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What do jounalists go through to consdider if a crime is got a better chance of making the news?
News values
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What do these values consider?
if the crime is important and newsworthy enough,
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What are these values? (I don't please hot simps not right values )
immediacy, Dramtisation, personalisation, higher-status involvemnt, simplication, noverlty or unexpectedness, risk, violence
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Give an example of immediacy
breaking news
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What is a series of events are reported on in the news? - like downing street parties
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describe of personalization
human interest partied about indivduals like Megan and Harry
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Describe High status invlovemnt value
crime or deviance involving high-status celebrities as seen as more newsworthy
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Why is simplification a value?
events that are easily understood and not too complicated and do not need a great deal of explanation
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Why does novelty or unexpectedness make news values?
a new angle, bizarre element
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Why is risk newsworthy?
Crimes seen as serious, random, and unpredictable makes us also seem like we have something to fear
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Why does violence make a news valuable?
violent events enable the media to report using drama, excitement, and action which appeal to audiences. like the Batman shootings
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Fictional representation of crime
4 or 6 marker
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What does fictional crime provide us?
an important source of our knowledge of crome
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What are the fictional represenations of crime simialr to?
Real crime
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Are fictional representations of crime represneativie of crime statiscs?
no - quite the opposite
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Bullet points for 4 and 6 marker
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What type of crime is under-represented and what type of crime is overrepresented in fictional represenations of crime?
property crime,
violence, drugs and sex crimes
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What is the reason why people commit murder in fictional crime?
Greed or calculation
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What is the real reason why murder is commited in real life?
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Who commits fictional sex crimes but who actually does in real life?
psychopathic stagers, not acquiantances
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What happens to fictional cops?
they get their man
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However, recent trends are reflecting offical satistics, provide examples
reality shows tend to future young- non-white, underclass offenders, police are seen as corrupt and less successful and victims have become more central to audiences can identify with their suffering
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Moral panics
4, 6 and 10 markers
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Why can the media cause crime through labelling?
Because the media put pressure on the authorities to 'do something about the problem
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Who usually dissaporves of the behavoiur being labeled in the first place?
Moral entrepreneurs
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Thus, if the media is successful in pressuring the authories to do soemthing, what will happend to the behaviour?
Be labeled as criminal
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As a result, what may happen?
Law changes
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What is an important element of this process by the media?
The creation of a morel panic
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What is a moral panic?
is exaggerated over-reaction by society to a perceived problem, usually driven or inspired by the media, where the reaction enlarges the problem
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The 3 features of a moral panic
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What is the first feature?
A group is identified as a folk devil or threat to society's values
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What is the 2nd feature?
The media presents the group in a negative, stereotypical way and exaggerate the scale of the problem
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What was the 3rd feature?
Moral entrepreneurs and respectable people condemn the group and its behavior
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What 3 things do these features usually lead to?
a crackdown of the group SPF, a deviance application sprial
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Thus what can the media cause through moral panics? (deviance amplification spiral)
More crime
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Name 3 examples of Moral Panics
Cohen (1972) mods and Rockers in the 1960s, Jock Young (1971) hippie cannabis users in the late 1960s, Hall (1975) crisis in hegemony and the creation of the Black mugger
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Evaluation of Moral panics
4 or 6 marker
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How do left Realists criticize moral panics?
argue the fear is rational and society is not always overreacting
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Why do Moral panics not explain in relation to amplification?
why some issues are amplified but others are not
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Who argues that moral panics have less impact on society today?
McRobbie and Thornton
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Why do they believe this?
we are all used to 'shock, horror' stories so people don't react the dame as in the past
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Why is it harder for the media to create moral panics?
little agreement about what is and isn't deviant - all relative now
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The media as a Cause of Crime
Encouraging Criminal behavior,
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How does the media encourage crime through providing deviant role models, copycat behavior results?
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Explain how the media causing Arousal creates crime
through viewing violent or sexual imagery
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Explain how desensitization encourages crime
repeated viewing of violence causes desensitization eg.gaming
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What does the media transmit ?
Knowledge of criminal techniques to hot wire cars
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Example of how the media encourages a target for crime
Antiques Roadshow, highlighting wealthy neighbourhoods
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Explain the media encouraging criminal behavior by stimulating desires
goods that people cannot afford
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How does portraying the police as incompetent encourage crime?
by portraying them as easy to fool and that the individuals have little chance of getting caught
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Provide examples of the media glamorizing offending
drugs reckless driving, guns
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Finally, what does the media generate that causes a deviancy amplification spiral?
By generating a moral panic
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What are studies starting to find about exposure to violent media?
It has a small and limited effect on audiences
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Who found that TV viewing for most children was neither harmful nor beneficial?
Schramm et al (1961)
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Who reviewed over 3500 studies in the
relationship between media and violence and failed to prove a clear link?
Cumberbatch (2011)
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Fear of crime
Another cause
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What 2 things does the media exaggerate that further the fear around crime?
exaggerate the amount of crime and the risks of certain groups becoming victims
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What 2 groups do they exaggerate being the victims of crime?
Young women and the elderly
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What did Gerbner et al find about TV?
heavy users of TV (4 hrs or more a day) had higher levels of crime
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who found a correlation between tabloid readers and heavy users of TV expressed greater fear of going out at night and becoming victims?
Schlesinger and Tumbler (1992)
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However, why does Schlesinger and Tumbler (1992) not prove a correlation that media viewing causes crime?
those who are already afraid of going out at night may watch more TV because they stay in more
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What do Greer and Renier(2012) note about much of the research on crime? (interpretivism)
ignores the different interpretations that viewers give to media violence eg, different meanings to violence in cartoons, horror films and news bullitins
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Explanations of the media causing crime
10 marker
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Who devises the strain theory explanation ?
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What vales media promote ?
Mainstream cultural success goals such as materialism and consumerism
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Name 2 ways the media reinforces these?
TV shows or advertising
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What does Merton argue there is a stain between?
Cultura goals and the legitimate ways to achieve them
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Thus what do some people adopt?
Illegitimate means and untilitarain crime
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What is his example?
The American Dream
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What does Merton assume?
A consensus of which everyone has the same maintain goal of monetary success
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Why is Merton seeing crime as a W/C phenomenon a criticism?
not all W/C people deviate even if they are more likely to experience the strain, corporate crime
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Left realism's explanation of the media causing crime
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Who claims that the mass media help to increase the sense of relative deprivation to the poor and marginalized groups?
Lea and Young (1966)
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What is relative deprivation?
the feeling of being deprived relative to others
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Provide an example of how the media presents an image of a material 'good life'
leisure, fun, and consumer goods
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Why do these goods stimulate a sense of deprivation?
Because they sow these material things as a goal of which to consume but, these marginalized groups cannot afford these goods
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Thus what do they feel?
Social exclusion
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Therefore, why do they groups turn to crime?
To achieve materialistic goals
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Why is relative deprivation theory put forward by left realists deterministic?
cannot fully explain crime because not all those who experience it commit crime
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Explain the inrepresativtative criticism
this theory over-predicts the amount of W/C and focuses on high crime in inner-city areas, it makes crime appear a greater problem than it is
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Cultural criminology explanation for the media causing crime
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What does Cultural criminology argue the media turns crime into?
a commodity that people desire
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How does media encourage people to consume crime?
in a form of images of crime eg. gaming
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In what particular groups does the media encourage to turn crime into a commodity?
the young
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What do Hayward and Young (2012) argue?
that late modern society is a media-saturated society that emphasizes consumption and excitement
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Name 2 examples of corporations using images of crime to sell products - fashion and rap
'gangsta' rap and hip hop combine images of street hustler criminology and images of consumerist success, fashion images of 'heroin chic'
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However, why is the cultural criminology view deterministic?
selling a criminal lifestyle and admiring these images does not necessarily cause criminilogy
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Cyber crime
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What are new types of crime often met with?
Morel panic
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How much of the world's population is now on the internet?
over half the worlds population
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How much does the UK estimate the annual cost of cyber-attacks is per annum?
27 billion
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What does Jewkes (2003) argue about the internet and crime?
it creates more opportunities to commit conventional crimes like fraud and new crimes using tools like software privacy
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Who identifies 4 categories of cybercrime?
Wall (2001)
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What are these 4 types?
Cyber trespass, Cyber deception, and theft, Cyber ***********, cyber violence
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What is cyber trespass?
crossing boundaries into other cyber property
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Provide an example of cyber trespass?
hacking, spreading virus
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What are cyber deception and theft?
identity theft eg. bank details, violation of intellectual property rights
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Give examples
illegal downloading
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Why is cyber-***********?
including pron involving minors and opportunities for children to access **** on the internet
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What is cyber-violence?
including going psychological harm or inciting physical harm
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provide examples of cyber violence
cyberstalking, hate crimes against minority groups, threatening emails
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However, why is policing cybercrime often difficult?
Because of the sheer scale of the internet
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Give 2 other reasons of why the internet is difficult to police
its globalized nature and limited resources
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Thus, what type of priority do the police give cyber crime?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What did Erikson et al (1991) find what percentage of Toronto news was about deveiance?



Card 3


Who found that British Newplasers devote 30% of their news space to Crime?


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Card 4


Examples of the distorted view of crime


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What 2 types of crime do the Media over-represent ?


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